"Christians and the Internet" newsletter
CATI, Vol. 2, No. 15:  October 31, 2001.
_______________________________________________________________

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. JONATHAN EDWARDS: THEOLOGIAN, PHILOSOPHER, PREACHER, PASTOR
2. HOW TO COPY, PASTE, & PRINT TEXT FROM WEB PAGES (PART 1)
3. SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION FOR THIS NEWSLETTER
_______________________________________________________________

Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this newsletter is
Copyright (C) 2001 by Barry Traver, All Rights Reserved.  For
permission to reproduce material from this newsletter, contact
Barry Traver at cati@traver.org.  Permission is hereby granted,
however, to pass along this issue to others, provided that (1)
no changes are made and (2) it is passed along in its entirety.
_______________________________________________________________

1. JONATHAN EDWARDS: THEOLOGIAN, PHILOSOPHER, PREACHER, PASTOR

I don't know who wrote the review, but the reviewer of a Web
site about Jonathan Edwards provides a good introduction to
Jonathan Edwards as well:

"Jonathan Edwards On-Line [now JonathanEdwards.com]
I'd heard of him, of course.  I only knew he was a famous
preacher in the early days of the country, a real strict,
hell-fire kind of guy.  But how shallow and superficial a
picture of this man that is!  Born in 1703, Jonathan Edwards
was a precocious genius - he graduated from what was to
become Yale University at the age of 17!  A sound thinker,
logician, and writer, many of his works are available now
through this excellent site developed by Mark Trigsted.  From
observations of spiders, conjecture on the atomic nature of
matter, to the nature of sin, the sacrifice of Christ, and
the glory of God, he covered it all.  A French writer, not
at all disposed to Christianity, comparing him to Kant and
Leibniz, wrote: 'There are few names of the eighteenth
century which have obtained such celebrity as that of
Jonathan Edwards.  Critics and historians down to our own
day have praised in dithyrambic terms the logical vigor and
the constructive powers of a writer whom they hold to be the
greatest metaphysician America has yet produced.'  This site
hosts biographical material from a number of sources,
commentaries on his writings, and most importantly, the
writings themselves.  Edwards' influence was strong in the
history of the church in this country and there is a revival
of interest in him today.  Well-designed, extensive, and
full of interesting and thought-provoking material, Jonathan
Edwards On-Line [now JonathanEdwards.com] is a site you will
want to bookmark for repeated visits:  there is no way you
can exhaust the resources here in just a few minutes...."
  http://www.familyseek.com/Education/History/index2.shtml

The Encyclopaedia Britannica in a classic edition called
Jonathan Edwards the greatest theologian and philosopher
that America has yet produced.  Perry Miller, renowned
literary historian, likewise considers Edwards to be
"the greatest philosopher-theologian yet to grace the
American scene."  But Edwards was more than a theologian
or philosopher:  he was also a notable preacher, pastor,
evangelist, and missionary.

And it is indeed true that "there is a revival of interest
in him today."  Just this past weekend I attended a special
conference devoted to "Jonathan Edwards and the Future of
Evangelicalism."  The conference, sponsored by Westminster
Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, and Westminster
Presbyterian Church (PCA), Lancaster, Pennsylvania,
included speakers from across the United States.

Here are just some of the ones I heard speak or talked
with personally:  Darryl G. Hart (Westminster Seminary,
California), Timothy J. Keller (Redeemer Presbyterian
Church, NYC), Samuel T. Logan, Jr. (Westminster Seminary,
Philadelphia), George M. Marsden (University of Notre
Dame), Stephen J. Nichols (Lancaster Bible College), K.
Scott Oliphint (Westminster Seminary, Philadelphia), and
Harry S. Stout (Yale University).  All of them were
convinced of the relevance of Edwards to contemporary
evangelical Christianity.

The Web page may be removed shortly, but here's where
more information may (perhaps) be found about this
excellent recent conference:

Jonathan Edwards & the Future of Evangelicalism
  http://www.wts.edu/news/edwards/edwardsconference.html

Jonathan Edwards is not easy to read, and some works by
Edwards are more accessible than others.  If you're not
familiar with Edwards, I'd suggest that you NOT start with
The True Nature of Virtue, but perhaps with some of his
sermons, particularly the pastoral or doctrinal sermons.
Better yet, just browse until something catches your
interest (even if it happens to be scientific comments on
spiders!).

Here are the three main places where you'll find works
by Jonathan Edwards on the Web:

JonathanEdwards.com
(claims to be "world's largest Jonathan Edwards Web site")
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/

The Writings of Jonathan Edwards
  http://www.jonathan-edwards.org/

CCEL: Edwards, Jonathan (1703-1758)
(Christian Classics Ethereal Library)
  http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/

Here is a fairly extensive list of Edwards' writings on the
Web and where to find them:

Charity and Its Fruits
(sixteen sermons on 1 Corinthians 13; scroll down the page)
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/sermons.htm

Complete Works
(2 vols., print edition images; difficult to use)
  http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/works/works.html

Concerning the End for Which God Created the World, A Dissertation
(chapter one)
  http://www.dallas.net/~trigsted/text/Theend.htm
(chapter two)
  http://www.dallas.net/~trigsted/text/Theend2.htm

David Brainerd, Life and Diary of
(HTML and RTF)
  http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/works/vol2/david_brainerd/brainerd.htm

Directions for Judging of Persons' Experiences
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/judging.htm
  http://members.aol.com/jonathanedw/Directions.html

The Excellency of Christ
  http://www.leaderu.com/cyber/books/edwards/excellency.html

A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/Narrative.htm
  http://members.aol.com/jonathanedw/Narrative.html

Freedom of the Will
  http://www.mbrem.com/calvinism/on_freedom_of_the_will/will.htm
  http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/will/home.html
(PDF file -- see comment below)
  http://members.aol.com/wrksofedwards/FreedomofWill.pdf

The History of Redemption
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/Hist%20of%20Redemption/Hist%20Outline.htm

The Justice of God in the Damnation of Sinners
  http://members.aol.com/jonathanedw/Justice.html
(PDF file -- see comment below)
  http://members.aol.com/wnichint/Justice.pdf

The Manner of Seeking Salvation
  http://members.aol.com/jonathanedw/Seeking.html

A Narrative of Surprising Conversions
  See A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God

The Nature of True Virtue
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/2D/True%20Virtue.htm

Original Sin
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/osin/osin.htm

Personal Narrative
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/PNarrative.htm

Pressing into the Kingdom of God
  http://members.aol.com/jonathanedw/Pressing.html
(PDF file -- see comment below)
  http://members.aol.com/jonathanedw/Pressing.pdf

Qualifications for Communion
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/Communion/Communion%20Outline.htm

The Religious Affections
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/RA/RAOutline.htm
  http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/religious_affections/religious_affections.html
  http://www.leaderu.com/cyber/books/religaffect/ratoc.html
(PDF file -- see comment below)
  http://members.aol.com/wrksofedwards/ReligiousAffections.pdf

The Resolutions of Jonathan Edwards
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/resolut.htm
  http://members.aol.com/jonathanedw/Resolutions.html

scientific and philosophical writings, some short
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/science.htm

Select Sermons (CCEL)
(nineteen sermons)
  http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/sermons/home.html
Select Sermons (CCEL): MP3 audio files narrated by Ruth Lomas
  http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/sermons/mp3/
and...

Sermons of Jonathan Edwards (International Outreach)
(nine sermons)
  http://members.aol.com/jonathanedw/Sermons.html
(four more sermons plus other works)
  http://members.aol.com/jonathanedw/Edwards.html
and...

Sermons of Jonathan Edwards (JonathanEdwards.com)
(fifteen sermons of warning and judgment)
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/sermons/Warnings/wsermons.htm
(twenty-eight doctrinal sermons)
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/sermons/Doctrine/dsermons.htm
(twenty pastoral sermons)
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/sermons/Pastoral/psermons.htm
(thirteen sermons for special occasions)
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/sermons/Special/ssermons.htm
(sixteen sermons on 1 Corinthians 13; scroll down the page)
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/sermons.htm

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
(Edwards' most famous sermon)
  http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/sermons/sinners.html
  http://www.leaderu.com/cyber/books/edwards/sinners.html
  http://members.aol.com/jonathanedw/Sinners.html
(PDF file -- see comment below)
  http://members.aol.com/jonathanedw/Sinners.pdf

Treatise on Grace
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/treatise.htm
  http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/grace/grace.html

Unpublished Essay on the Trinity
  http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/trinity/trinity.html
  http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/trinity.htm

"PDF" stands for "Portable Document Format."  To use
these files you should have the Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Here's where you can find more information on that:

Adobe Acrobat Reader: A Free Program Shows It As It Is!
  http://traver.org/cati/archives/cati40.htm#2

So that's where you can find material on the Web _by_
Jonathan Edwards.  Let's move on to where you can find
some material on the Web _about_ Jonathan Edwards:

Anonymous. The Life of Jonathan Edwards.
  http://www.yale.edu/wje/html/life_of__edwards.html

Browning, Mark.  "Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)."
  http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/edwards.html

Jeffreys, Mary Ann.  "The Woman Behind Jonathan Edwards."
  http://women.crosswalk.com/partner/Article_Display_Page/1,,PTID73970%7CCHID200060%7CCIID508908,00.html

Kiefer, James. "Jonathan Edwards, Scholar, Preacher, Missionary."
  http://www.hillsdale.edu/dept/Phil&Rel/Biography/03/22a.html

Logan, Samuel T., Jr.  "Jonathan Edwards on the Religious Affections."
(RealAudio only)
  http://www.wts.edu/courses/ch911/edwards.html

Marsden, George.  "Jonathan Edwards, American Augustine."
  http://www.christianitytoday.com/bc/9b6/9b6010.html

Neighbor, R.E.  "Shall We Read Jonathan Edwards?"
  http://www.banneroftruth.co.uk//articles/shall_we_read_jonathan_edwards.htm

Noll, Mark A.  "Jonathan Edwards & the Public Square."
  http://www.firstthings.com/ftissues/ft9306/reviews/noll.html

Oliphint, Scott.  "Jonathan Edwards: Reformed Apologist."
  http://www.reformed.org/apologetics/oliphint_edwards.html

Piper, John.  "Is God Less Glorious Because He Ordained that
    Evil Be?: Jonathan Edwards on the Decrees of God."
  http://www.desiringgod.org/Online_Library/OnlineArticles/Subjects/Suffering/GodAndEvil.htm

Piper, John.  "The Pastor as Theologian: Reflections on the
    Ministry of Jonathan Edwards."
  http://www.desiringgod.org/Online_Library/OnlineArticles/Biographies/88Edwards.htm

Sproul, R.C.  "God In The Hands Of Angry Sinners."
http://www.banneroftruth.co.uk//articles/sinners_in_the_hands_of_an_angry_god.htm

Warfield, Benjamin B.  "Edwards and the New England Theology"
  http://www.dallas.net/~trigsted/text/warfield.htm

There are other Web sites, of course, relevant to Jonathan
Edwards.  Here are just two examples:

Jonathan Edwards and the 18th Century at Hillsdale College
(papers by Hillsdale College students)
  http://www.hillsdale.edu/dept/Phil&Rel/JE/Links.html

Jonathan Edwards Institute
  http://www.thejei.org/

If you prefer to read Jonathan Edwards in hardcopy form (that
is, in books or booklets), here is where you can find some
information on a few significant print editions of Jonathan
Edwards:

Banner of Truth
(Charity and Its Fruits)
http://www.banneroftruth.co.uk/Books/Edwards_Spurgeon_Lloyd-Jones/charity_and_its_fruits.htm
(The Religious Affections)
http://www.banneroftruth.co.uk/Books/Edwards_Spurgeon_Lloyd-Jones/religious_affections.htm
(The Works of Jonathan Edwards in two volumes)
http://www.banneroftruth.co.uk/Books/Edwards_Spurgeon_Lloyd-Jones/works_of_jonathan_edwards.htm

International Outreach, Inc.
(five individual sermons by Edwards)
  http://members.aol.com/intoutreach/pricelist.html

Yale University Press
(information about the Yale edition of Edwards' works)
  http://www.yale.edu/wje/

Finally, you can get some good Jonathan Edwards material on a
CD-ROM right now for a bargain price!  Here's what's included:
The Works of Jonathan Edwards (as published in the 2 volume
edition from Banner of Truth), The Rational Biblical Theology
of Jonathan Edwards by John Gerstner (as published in three
volumes by Ligonier), Jonathan Edwards: A New Biography by
Iain H. Murray, and Jonathan Edwards' Notes on the Scriptures
with a "Commentary" on Hebrews.  The cost?  For now, only
$39.20, if ordered online:

Jonathan Edwards CD-ROM at Westminster Bookstore
  http://www.wts.edu/bookstore/newsage.html

Check it out!
_______________________________________________________________

2. HOW TO COPY, PASTE, & PRINT TEXT FROM WEB PAGES (PART 1)

One of the most useful skills related to the World Wide Web is
knowing how to copy, paste, and print text from a Web page.
If you're a novice, this series of CATI articles will teach
you how to do that.  Even if you consider yourself an expert
in this area, I think you'll find here some new and useful
tips that you will not find elsewhere.

When I prepare to preach, I rarely write down the full text of
what I intend to say -- that is, my comments on the Biblical
text -- but I do ordinarily write down the full text of the
Biblical text I intend to quote, because I want to be sure
that I quote accurately.  Recently, I have found the Bible
Gateway Web site to be a helpful aid to accomplishing that:

Bible Gateway
  http://bible.gospelcom.net/

Since I preach at different churches and since they often have
different "standard" translations in the pews, I like to quote
accurately the translation with which the congregation is most
familiar.  With Bible Gateway, this is a relatively simple
task to accomplish.

Before we get into the specifics of how to copy, paste, and
print text from a Web page, I should perhaps say something
about the matter of copyright.  My comments should not be
taken as legal advice, but simply as common-sense comments
on questions of ethics.

There is a lot of worthwhile text on the Web you can freely
access, including many books that are now public domain rather
than being currently protected by copyright.  Here are some
resources for finding books and articles that you can access
online:

General Books and Articles:

Alex Catalogue of Electronic Texts
  http://www.infomotions.com/alex/

Bartleby.com
  http://www.bartleby.com/

bibliomania
  http://www.bibliomania.com/

BUBL LINK: Book and Text Collections
  http://www.bubl.ac.uk/link/types/books.htm

Free Library of Classics
  http://www.information-resources.com/Library/library.html

Internet Public Library: Online Texts Collection
  http://www.ipl.org/reading/books/

On-Line Books Page
  http://digital.library.upenn.edu/books/

Project Gutenberg
  http://promo.net/pg/

Christian Books and Articles:

Christian Classics Ethereal Library
  http://www.ccel.org/

Fire and Ice: Puritan and Reformed Writings
  http://www.puritansermons.com/toc.htm

Guide to Christian Literature on the Internet
  http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/christian-books.html

Hall of Church History (Phil Johnson)
  http://www.gty.org/~phil/hall.htm

I.C.E. Free Books
  http://freebooks.entrewave.com/freebooks/sidefrm3.htm

Legacy: Reformed & Puritan Christian Literature
  http://www.iserv.net/~mrbill/Legacy.html

Rose Tree Press
  http://www.rosetree.com/

Some of these sites are more helpful than others, and you
should (as always on the Web) exercise Christian discretion.
For more details on each site, see the following article that
was previously published in CATI:

Buying Books And/Or Reading Books on the Web
  http://traver.org/cati/archives/cati46.htm#1

The Bible says, "Thou shalt not steal."  This does not cause
a problem for textual material that is in the public domain,
because that material belongs to you, since you are part of
"the public."  But what about copyrighted works, books and
articles that are legally owned by someone else?  How are
you to deal with such text?

First, as in the case of anything owned by someone else,
without violation of the Biblical commandment against
stealing, you can do with someone else's property whatever
the owner of that property has given you permission to do.
Second, certain use may be made legally and ethically of
copyrighted material even without the direct permission of
the copyright owner.

By the way, I am not that familiar with copyright laws in
other countries, but presumably they would be similar to U.S.
copyright law.  But I am not a lawyer and do not pretend to
be qualified to offer legal advice concerning copyright law.
The best that I can do is to attempt to suggest some ethical
guidelines related to some of the issues involved.

First, legally and morally you can do with someone else's
property whatever the owner of that property has given you
permission to do.  Sometimes the policy is stated explicitly
at the site where the copyrighted material is found.  For
example, here is what Bible Gateway has to say concerning the
Scripture on their site:

"These Scriptures may be downloaded and saved locally on
a computer for personal, non-commercial use only.  These
Scriptures may be re-printed for non-commercial use.  Clearly,
you are encouraged to use the Bible for personal use, and to
quote from it.  The goal of the copyright is to prevent others
from profiting from the work that IBS, Nelson, or other
translators have done.  As we live in a society based on
capitalism and trade, the copyright law is what allows these
companies to continue to do the work that they do."
  http://bible.gospelcom.net/bg/bible_faq.html#24

Bible Gateway also offers these comments:

"Most of the Bibles provided here on the Bible Gateway are
made available by the generosity of the publishers....  You
are allowed to copy some Biblical material from the online
Bibles, as long as you follow the copyright restrictions set
forth by the publishers."
  http://bible.gospelcom.net/bg/bible_faq.html#24

Some of the publishers may provide more specific guidelines,
such as the International Bible Society (publishers of the
New International Version or NIV):

"The NIV may be quoted in any form (written, visual,
electronic or audio) up to and inclusive of five hundred
(500) verses without the express written permission of the
publisher, providing the verses quoted do not amount to a
complete book of the Bible nor do the verses quoted account
for more than 25 percent (25%) or more of the total text of
the work in which they are quoted."
  http://www.gospelcom.net/ibs/bibles/use.html

Second, certain use may be made legally and ethically of
copyrighted material even without the direct permission of
the copyright owner.  Sometimes copyright owners may make
claims which, if taken literally, are not supported by U.S.
copyright law.  For example, the following claim is made at
the Web site of David W. Cloud, a "Fundamental Baptist":

"This information may not be placed on other web sites or
BBS sites."
  http://www.wayoflife.org/fbns/fbns-index/gospfbns.htm

That is the claim, but it's not supported by U.S. copyright
law.  A particular expression or wording of information or
ideas may be protected, but ...

"Ideas and information, however, are not protected by
copyright."
  http://www.umich.edu/~bhl/bhl/refhome/copyrt.htm

More specifically,

"Copyright protects the way in which information is presented,
it does not protect facts, ideas or information. Taking
information from another web site and expressing it in your
own words does not infringe copyright."
  http://learningcommons.senecacollege.ca/learningcommons/Library/Copyright/electronicResources.html

In addition, you should know that even the protection of the
way in which information is presented is not absolute.  You
may quote a limited amount of material in certain situations
and for certain purposes according to the "fair use" provision
of U.S. copyright law (Title 17, United States Code, Section
107):

"Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A,
the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by
reproduction in copies ..., for purposes such as criticism,
comment, news reporting, teaching..., scholarship, or
research, is not an infringement of copyright.  In determining
whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a
fair use the factors to be considered shall include (1) the
purpose and character of the use, including whether such use
is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational
purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the
amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to
the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use
upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted
work."
  http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.html

For another example of a claim that is not supported by U.s.
copyright law, let's again look at David W. Cloud's Web
site.  On that site the following claim is made in the
"informational header" for his article "I Reject TULIP
Theology" and elsewhere:

"These articles cannot be stored on BBS or Internet sites and
cannot be sold or placed by themselves or with other material
in any electronic format for sale, but may be distributed for
free by e-mail or by print. They must be left intact and
nothing removed or changed, including these informational
headers."
  http://www.wayoflife.org/fbns/ireject.htm

But the second sentence--if taken literally--is contrary to
the "fair use" provision of U.S. copyright law, which does
permit the limited quotation of copyrighted works for, say,
the purpose of criticism and critique.

In the "I Reject TULIP Theology" article on David W. Cloud's
Web site just mentioned, the following statements are made:

"The Westminster Confession reflected John Calvinís system
of predestinarian theology which has been summarized in
five points by the acronym of TULIP: Total depravity of man,
meaning man is incapable of responding to the Gospel;
Unconditional election, meaning God chooses which men will
be saved and which men will be lost; Limited atonement,
meaning Christ died only for those who will be saved;
Irresistible grace, meaning the sinner cannot resist Godís
call to salvation; and Perseverance of the saints, meaning
those who are saved will hold out faithful to the end.  We
must hasten to say that the Westminster Confessionís teaching
in these areas is contrary to the plain statements of the
Word of God."
  http://www.wayoflife.org/fbns/ireject.htm

Now, I personally believe that the Westminster Confession of
Faith accurately states the teaching of Scripture in these
areas.  Here are some places where you can find support for
"TULIP theology" (the theology set forth in the Canons of
the Synod of Dordt, part of the doctrinal standards of many
churches in the Reformed tradition and greatly respected by
many Presbyterian churches as well):

A Puritan's Mind: T.U.L.I.P.
  http://www.apuritansmind.com/TULIP/TULIP.htm

Coram Deo TULIP Page
  http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Cyprus/1548/TULIP.html

The Five Points of Calvinism (CRTA site)
(Center for Reformed Theology and Apologetics)
  http://www.reformed.org/calvinism/

The Five Points of Calvinism (by W.J. Seaton)
  http://www.graceonlinelibrary.org/calvinism/full.asp?ID=224

T.U.L.I.P., Or The Five Points of Calvinism
  http://www.bethelpca.org/5-points.htm

Why the Name TULIP?
  http://www.tulip.org/tulip.html

But that's not my main point here.  My point is that the
fair use provision of U.S. copyright law allows me to quote
David W. Cloud's position and arguments and to respond to
them, if I so choose, without reproducing his articles in
their entirety (including "informational headers").

Without the fair use provision, people could publish (or post
on a Web site) any nonsense they desired, and people who may
hold a different position would be unfairly restricted in
their opportunity to interact and respond.  Actually, the
fair use provision safeguards both sides.  If I happen to
oppose someone on a particular issue, I should be able to
quote him out of fairness to him, so that I may be able to
represent his opinion accurately and directly rather than
my readers having to rely on paraphrase.

Incidentally, there is some worthwhile reading on David W.
Cloud's Web site (and even when I disagree with his articles,
they often make for interesting reading), so I do not intend
this article to be a put-down of him or his ministry, even
though I seriously disagree with him on certain issues.  Such
disagreement is to be expected, since he is a "Fundamental
Baptist," while I am a conservative Presbyterian.  The reason
for mentioning him here is mainly to indicate that in certain
defined situations, it is fair to quote copyrighted material
even when the copyright owner (David W. Cloud or whoever) may
not explicitly give permission to do so.

Let's move on to the matter of copying and pasting text from
a Web page.  Future articles will include other "tips and
tricks," but in this article I'll concentrate on just one in
particular, what I call the "control-VAX" trick.  That may not
mean anything right now, but this useful technique should be
clear by the end of this article.

By the way, this article assumes, perhaps unfairly, that you
are using Microsoft Windows.  If you are using a different
operating system, some of the following may not apply.

First, we need to define some terms.  We need to distinguish
between what I call "plain text" and what I call "fancy text."
"Plain text" is the text that you can create using an ordinary
typewriter.  It's simply what you get by pressing typewriter
keys:  letters, numerals, punctuation, spaces, and a limited
number of symbols (mostly those you get by pressing the shift
key and the keys of the top row of the keyboard).

"Fancy text," however, is lots more.  Here's where we get to
see the "extras," things like different fonts (and different
font sizes), bold, italics, underlining, tables, "bullets,"
and even pictures!  On the computer you can create "plain
text" using, say, a normal text editor such as Microsoft
Notepad, but to create "fancy text" you need to use a word
processor like WordPerfect or Microsoft Word (or at least
a program like Microsoft WordPad, which is like a stripped
down word processor).

Second, we need to be familiar with some frequently-used
Windows "shortcuts."  For many (or most?) Windows programs,
you do not have to use the top menu or even use a button
toolbar to do common tasks like "copy" and "paste."  You
can instead use certain "combination keystrokes," where
you press down the "Control" key (usually labeled "Ctrl"),
press an appropriate letter key (such as "A," "C", "V,"
or "X"), and let up both keys.

Here's a list of some common keystroke-combination shortcuts,
used in many or most Windows programs:

     Ctrl-A - select All
     Ctrl-C - Copy
     Ctrl-X - Cut
     Ctrl-V - Paste
     Ctrl-O - Open
     Ctrl-S - Save
     Ctrl-P - Print

For some of these, the first letter of the command suggests
the shortcut (e.g., Copy, Open, Save, Print, and even select
All).  A memory aid for Cut (Ctrl-X) is that the letter "X"
looks like a pair of scissors.  And a memory aid for Paste
is that the letter "V" looks a bit like the proofreading
symbol sometimes used to indicate an insertion.

That's the background you need to know at this point.  Now
you are ready to do some copying and pasting.  For the sake
of providing a specific example (for which you will be
given step-by-step directions), let's assume that you are
preparing a sermon or Sunday school lesson.  Let's further
assume that you like to use larger print for your notes to
make for easier reading.

Start up your favorite word processor (WordPerfect, Microsoft
Word, or whatever), and set the font point size to 16.  (For
MS-Word, choose Format and then Font, change the Size to 16,
and then click on OK.)  Type in "Note that we are saved by
grace and not by works:", press the Enter key a few times,
type in "Note also that although we are not saved by works,
we are saved to do good works.", and use the left arrow key
to position the cursor (or "insertion point") somewhere in
between those two statements.  Minimize your word processor.
(One way to do this is to click on the picture (or "icon")
in the top-left corner of your word processor and choose
Minimize.)

Now connect to the Internet and go to the following Web
site:

Bible Gateway
  http://bible.gospelcom.net/

On the left side of the page, click the circle in front of
your favorite translation, type "Eph. 2:8-10" (without the
quotation marks) in the box in front of "Lookup," and click
on "Lookup."  That should take you to a new Web page where
you will see the Scripture passage on the screen.  At this
point you want to copy the passage to the Windows clipboard.
(Don't be afraid of the terminology; the Windows clipboard
is simply a temporary storage place or "cubbyhole" where
you will be temporarily storing the text, even though you
will not physically see that clipboard.)

How do you copy the passage?  It's done in two steps.  First,
you need to "select" (or highlight) the material.  If you want
to select the entire Web page, that's simple:  just press
Ctrl-A (check the earlier chart).  If you want to select just
a part of the page, that's a bit more difficult:  you need to
click at the beginning of what you want to select, keep the
left mouse button down, and move to the end of what you want
to select.  (That sort of thing is sometimes called "dragging"
with the mouse.)  Second (after the appropriate part of the
page is selected or highlighted), press Ctrl-C to "Copy" the
material to the Windows clipboard.

Since you can't see the Windows clipboard, you'll have to
take it "on faith" for now that the material was actually
copied to the Windows clipboard.  We'll confirm that in a
moment.

Now go back to your word processor.  (To do that, you can
most likely simply click on the appropriate button on your
"task bar" which most Windows users have at the bottom of
their screen.)  When you do that, you should then see the
"insertion point" blinking in the middle of your word
processing document.  Press Ctrl-V to "Paste" the text
into your document at that point.  There it is!

"Yes, but....," you may be saying.  The selected text did
arrive safely (so that you can indeed be sure that you are
accurately quoting Scripture in your sermon or Sunday School
lesson), but what was pasted was the "fancy" stuff you saw
on the Web page, whereas what you wanted was the "plain"
text, text that would, for example, not be a different size
from what you already typed in your document.

When you want to copy and paste text, what you most often
want is "plain text," not "fancy text."  Unfortunately,
when you go directly from the Web page to your word
processor, what you get is "fancy text," not "plain text."
Here is where we can use the "control-VAX" trick that I
mentioned earlier.

So we're going to insert a step in the middle to change
"fancy text" to "plain text."  Specifically, we will be
using "control-VAX" with a text editor.  Instead of
going directly from the Web page to the word processor,
we will be going from the Web page to a text editor to
the word processor (and the text editor will change the
"fancy text" to "plain text").

It's a lot simpler than it sounds, and the procedure will
become almost automatic, once you've done it once or
twice using the step-by-step directions given here.  So
please hang in there, because we're going through the
entire process again (you were able to handle it before,
right?), but we'll insert the text editor trick (using
"control-VAX" as will be explained in a moment) in order
to convert that "fancy text" to "plain text."

Let's do it again!  First, this part hasn't changed:

Start up your favorite word processor (WordPerfect, Microsoft
Word, or whatever), and set the font point size to 16.  (For
MS-Word, choose Format and then Font, change the Size to 16,
and then click on OK.)  Type in "Note that we are saved by
grace and not by works:", press the Enter key a few times,
type in "Note also that although we are not saved by works,
we are saved to do good works.", and use the left arrow key
to position the cursor (or "insertion point") somewhere in
between those two statements.  Minimize your word processor.
(One way to do this is to click on the picture (or "icon")
in the top-left corner of your word processor and choose
Minimize.)

Now connect to the Internet and go to the following Web
site:

Bible Gateway
  http://bible.gospelcom.net/

On the left side of the page, click the circle in front of
your favorite translation, type "Eph. 2:8-10" (without the
quotation marks) in the box in front of "Lookup," and click
on "Lookup."  That should take you to a new Web page where
you will see the Scripture passage on the screen.  At this
point you want to copy the passage to the Windows clipboard.
(Don't be afraid of the terminology; the Windows clipboard
is simply a temporary storage place or "cubbyhole" where
you will be temporarily storing the text, even though you
will not physically see that clipboard.)

How do you copy the passage?  It's done in two steps.  First,
you need to "select" (or highlight) the material.  If you want
to select the entire Web page, that's simple:  just press
Ctrl-A (check the earlier chart).  If you want to select just
a part of the page, that's a bit more difficult:  you need to
click at the beginning of what you want to select, keep the
left mouse button down, and move to the end of what you want
to select.  (That sort of thing is sometimes called "dragging"
with the mouse.)  Second (after the appropriate part of the
page is selected or highlighted), press Ctrl-C to "Copy" the
material to the Windows clipboard.

Since you can't see the Windows clipboard, you'll have to
take it "on faith" for now that the material was actually
copied to the Windows clipboard.  We'll confirm that in a
moment.

None of the preceding has changed.  Second, we come to the
new stuff.  You need to start up a text editor.  The easiest
way for Windows users is probably to use Microsoft Notepad.
Click on Start, then on Programs, then on Accessories, and
finally on Notepad.  Notepad (a text editor) is now running.
Now use the "control-VAX" trick.  All that means is to
press in succession Ctrl-V, Ctrl-A, and Ctrl-X.  (Consult
the earlier chart to see what these keypress combinations
do.)  You're done with the new stuff!  That is, the text
editor (Notepad) has converted the "fancy text" to "plain
text."

Third, we return to the procedure we followed earlier.

Now go back to your word processor.  (To do that, you can
most likely simply click on the appropriate button on your
"task bar" which most Windows users have at the bottom of
their screen.)  When you do that, you should then see the
"insertion point" blinking in the middle of your word
processing document.  Press Ctrl-V to "Paste" the text
into your document at that point.  There it is!  And this
time there is no "Yes, but...."

If you want to copy and paste material from other Web pages
into your word processor, just make sure that you briefly
stop off in between at Notepad and do a quick Ctrl-V (Paste),
Ctrl-A (select All), and Ctrl-X (Cut) before going on.  The
"control-VAX" trick will change the unwanted "fancy text" to
the desired "plain text."  (If, of course, you do really want
the "fancy text" version in your word processor, then you
wouldn't use the "control-VAX" trick.)

The phrase "control-VAX" is simply a memory aid to help you
remember the sequence Ctrl-V, Ctrl-A, Ctrl-X.  It may make
it easier for you, even if you don't happen to know that
there used to be an old computer called a "VAX" (somewhat
"plain" compared to modern "fancy" computers).

That's it for this part.  In the next article in this series
we'll be going on to printing out Web pages (or selected
portions of Web pages), and you can expect there some more
tips and trips that you may find useful.
_______________________________________________________________

3. SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION FOR THIS NEWSLETTER

This is the sixtieth issue of a free newsletter devoted
to Christians And The Internet ("CATI," pronounced "Katy,"
but spelled with a "C" and an "I" for "Christians" and the
"Internet").

To subscribe, write to cati@traver.org, including the word
"Subscribe" in the Subject line and including in the body your
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Past issues:  you'll find archives of past issues of CATI
available online at   http://traver.org/cati/.  ("It's not a
pretty site," but hopefully it may be a useful one.)
________________________________________________________________

Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this newsletter is
Copyright (C) 2001 by Barry Traver, All Rights Reserved.  For
permission to reproduce material from this newsletter, contact
Barry Traver at cati@traver.org.  Permission is hereby granted,
however, to pass along this issue to others, provided that (1)
no changes are made and (2) it is passed along in its entirety.
_______________________________________________________________