"Christians and the Internet" newsletter CATI, Vol. 2, No. 16: November 13, 2001. _______________________________________________________________ TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. HAS THE CHURCH AGE COME TO AN END? FAMILY RADIO IS WRONG! 2. BIBLE/NOSTRADAMUS PREDICION OF THE "TWIN TOWERS" TRAGEDY? 3. SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION FOR THIS NEWSLETTER _______________________________________________________________ Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this newsletter is Copyright (C) 2001 by Barry Traver, All Rights Reserved. For permission to reproduce material from this newsletter, contact Barry Traver at firstname.lastname@example.org. Permission is hereby granted, however, to pass along this issue to others, provided that (1) no changes are made and (2) it is passed along in its entirety. _______________________________________________________________ 1. HAS THE CHURCH AGE COME TO AN END? FAMILY RADIO IS WRONG! Harold Camping, President of Family Radio and ex-elder in the Christian Reformed Church, believes that "The church age has come to an end" and that Christians are to leave "the external church" (i.e., congregations governed by pastors, elders, and deacons) to form "fellowships of believers," since "the church era has come to an end and the church no longer has any divine authority." On what basis are Christians to adopt Mr. Camping's radical viewpoint? On what authority does he challenge the God-given authority of pastors and elders (see Eph. 4:11-16, Heb. 13:17, etc.)? As I see it, he presents two main reasons: (1) his own idiosyncratic re-interpretation of somewhat obscure Old and New Testament prophetic passages, and (2) his contention that God is working more and more through "a ministry like Family Radio" and less and less through the church. Yes, this is the same Harold Camping who predicted that Christ would return in 1994, and his exegesis of the Scriptures is equally (un)skillful at the present time. Unfortunately, as President of Family Radio, he has available to him a "pulpit" to proclaim his strange views to the many listeners of what is called "Christian radio," and thus he is in a position to cause significant harm in many congregations, including many in the Reformed tradition (since he himself comes from that tradition). Here (I'm quoting with permission) is a recent email that I received from a CATI subscriber: > Have you heard anything about Family Radio and Harold > Camping's new teaching? It is affecting many OPC and PCA > Reformed works, in that the teaching tells people to leave > their church no matter how faithful to the gospel it is. > If you want this web site it has been found to be a useful > place to find out more about it. > > http://www.familyradioiswrong.com That Web site is indeed a useful one, and I do recommend it to you, since on this subject "Family Radio _Is_ Wrong," and very much so. Harold Camping's views are set forth on Family Radio and on the Family Radio Web site, especially in this article: Harold Camping: "The End of the External Church: Has the Era of the Church Come to an End?" http://www.familyradio.com/cross/tract/church.htm Later we'll take a look at some of the things Mr. Camping says in that article, but before we do that I'd like to share with you (again with permission) an email that I got from another CATI subscriber and my response to that note. (Incidentally, when I wrote my reply, I did not intend it for publication, so I hope you'll forgive any infelicities of style, disorganization, etc.) Here's the email that I received: > Have you seen or read or heard about the article below? I > copied it from the Family Radio Website. This teaching is > splitting the church I pastor. Have you had any dealings > with Camping or those who listen to him in the past? I have > heard that many PCA and OPC churches had problems back in > 1994 when he predicted the return of Christ. Would this be a > good topic for a future CATI? Would you have any pastoral > advice for a young minister who isn't quite sure what to do > as people believe this heresy and leave the church? Just > thought I would pass it along and see if you had any wisdom > to impart. I would appreciate your prayers. And here's my response: ______________________________________________________________ / Even though the following points are numbered, the order does not have any particular system. I'm just mentioning things as I think of them. First, remember Christ's promise that the very gates of hell shall not prevail against the Church (Matthew 16:18). That great old hymn, "The Church's One Foundation," accurately presents the Scriptural teaching concerning the Church. (Read all six verses!) Likewise Chapter XXV of the Westminster Confession of Faith is a good summary of the Bible's teaching on the Church. Note in particular article v: "...there shall always be a church on earth, to worship God according to his will." This is in sharp contrast to Camping's view that there will be (and now is!) a time when "the church era has come to an end and the church no longer has any divine authority." Camping seems aware that the historic Confessions of the Church stand against him. This is evident from his complaint that "it is almost impossible to find a church today that will modify its Confessions to make them more faithful to the Bible." (What he means, of course, is change them to make them more faithful to his own unhistoric views.) Second, Harold Camping is one of the reasons why I am not a real fan of "Christian" radio. God's people need to exercise great discretion in choosing what to listen to, because there is so much unScriptural teaching on the airwaves. If people are going to listen to Christian radio, it may be good to provide some guidance as to what preachers and teachers are, in general, safe guides. (For example, R.C. Sproul and D. James Kennedy can be helpful. Charles Colson often has a lot to offer, although he is not really Reformed when it comes to such matters as "free will," the problem of evil, etc.) Third, Camping's track record definitely does not show him to be a reliable guide. Rather, there is more evidence that he may be regarded as a false prophet. Like some of the cults, he predicted the coming of Christ, and it didn't happen. (In his book _1994_?, p. 531, he said this: "The results of this study indicate that the month of September of the year 1994 is to be the time for the end of history.") "You may say to yourselves, 'How can we know when a message has not been spoken by the LORD?' If what a prophet proclaims in the name of the LORD does not take place or come true, that is a message the LORD has not spoken. That prophet has spoken presumptuously. Do not be afraid of him." (Deuteronomy 18:21-22). In spite of his Reformed background (at one point he was an elder in the Christian Reformed Church, although his professional training was not in theology but in civil engineering), Camping is "off" in some of his other teachings as well, from what I understand. For example, I believe the Scriptural position on marriage and divorce is accurately set forth in Chapter XXV of the Westminster Confession of Faith (i.e., that "adultery" and "willful desertion" can be "cause sufficient of dissolving the bond of marriage" and that those are the only two grounds recognized in the New Testament), whereas Camping teaches that there is no Biblical ground ever for divorce (see his statement, "...there is not to be divorce under any circumstances whatsoever," in his tract "What God Hath Joined Together"). Fourth, the Bible tells us that the ascended Christ gave "...some to be pastors and teachers to prepare God's people for works of service so that the body of Christ may be built up until we all reach unity in the faith...." (Ephesians 4:11-12). God works His will out through ordained officers in the Church. Though at times parachurch organizations may be useful, they can never take the place of the Church, which is given by God the tasks of preaching the Word in worship, celebrating the sacraments (including the Lord's Supper), and administering church discipline. (Note well: all of these require elders to perform them!) God gave you and your session responsibility for (and a certain authority over) the congregation that you pastor. In the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, when people become members, they promise to "submit in the Lord to the government of this church and ... to heed its discipline" (see Chapter 5 of the OPC Directory of Worship). Other denominations in the Presbyterian or Reformed tradition have similar statements, because that is how God governs His Church, according to the New Testament (see Hebrews 13:17). Who gave Harold Camping such authority over God's people? Who ordained that his Family Radio as a parachurch organization should supersede the church? Yet he seems (implicitly) to assume that authority and more: a self-assertive authority to teach things contrary to the historic understanding of the Church. (The introduction to his book _1994?_ states, for example, "No book ever written is as audacious or bold as one that claims to predict the timing of the end of the world, and that is precisely what this book presumes to do." No modesty there!) I haven't studied his teachings in detail, but I have the impression that he thinks that although the Church may fall, nothing shall prevail against his self-ordained ministry in Family Radio. That is, Camping wants us to distrust elders and deacons (who in the future will be "guided by their own minds rather than by the Holy Spirit") but instead to trust in an individual, Harold Camping (himself at one time ordained an elder), who has already in the past shown himself to be an unreliable guide, predicting events that did not come to pass! I know, Camping does concede that "no teacher of Family Radio ... has the authority to command" anyone "to withdraw altogether from the church as an institution," but he does presume the authority to teach that there will be a time when "the church [not just individual churches or denominations] as a corporate institution has no spiritual authority." By the way, the word "corporate" comes from the Latin word "corpus," meaning "body," so when the Bible refers to the Church as the Body of Christ, it is referring to the corporate nature of the Church. Perhaps part of Camping's problem is a failure to appreciate all that the corporate nature of the Church involves. Fifth, to me the best response to false teaching is true teaching. If we concentrate all our efforts on combatting a particular kind of wrong teaching, that does not necessarily mean that our people are prepared to deal with other forms of wrong teaching. Instruction in the truth is the best defense and the best offense. To put it another way, the really important question is not whether or not people are following Harold Camping (for even though they may avoid Camping's errors, they may be followers of some other false teachers) but whether or not people are following God through His Word. If they know what the Bible teaches about the Church, they should be able to handle various forms of wrong teaching concerning the Church. (The same is true for other areas of Christian theology, such as eschatology.) Sixth, in addition to preaching, there are other means of instructing people in the truth (e.g., in Sunday School classes, in one-on-one conversations, in sharing good Christian books or articles, etc.) Make use of whatever opportunities exist to build your people up in the truth and in "the whole counsel of God" (Acts 20:27; see also Acts 20:20-21, 28-32). (But you already know that.) Seventh, it can be good to let people know that in the area of eschatology there are different views that have been held by Bible-believing Christians (I've found Robert Clouse's IVP book The Meaning of the Millennium: Four Views to be helpful in this area), but Harold Camping's view is "beyond the camp," so to speak, so far as any real acceptance by pastors in the Reformed tradition (e.g., in the OPC, PCA, RPCNA, RCUS, ARP, or URC) is concerned. That is, to me it seems instructive that essentially you have to go outside God's current ordained leadership in the (Bible-believing Reformed or Presbyterian) Church to find a "preacher" who teaches that the Church is doomed! But, of course, Camping has an answer to this, since if all pastors understood the truth as Camping does, they would not be pastors! Eighth, so far as splitting the Church is concerned, the definition of the Church (for Presbyterians) is set forth in the Westminster Standards. As long as we believe that they accurately represent the teaching of Scripture on the Church, that is where the Church must stand. If people leave as a result, that's not necessarily a "splitting of the Church" (or of a specific congregation), but often an indication that the people leaving are not really part of that congregation (as defined in Scripture and as summarized by the Confessions). (See 1 John 2:19, "They went out from us, but they did not really belong to us....") Ninth, I hope that some of the preceding is helpful to you. At the moment I am not aware of any recent printed refutations specifically of Camping's views, but such probably exist. If it would be helpful, I could ask around to see what I can find. (Just let me know.) Warm regards in Christ, Barry P.S. My prayers are with you. P.P.S. The following was published in the March 2000 issue of the Reformed Herald, a publication of the RCUS: "In about 1990, Harold Camping, an ex-Christian Reformed elder and the founder of Family Christian Radio, predicted that Christ would come again in 1994. Using the same foolish numerology [as William Miller in 1818] Mr. Camping figured out his numbers very carefully and began preaching his false prophecy across the United States over hundreds of radio stations. "Because Mr. Camping was of Reformed background, many Reformed folks tried to get him to back away from his false prophecy, but he would not. Mr. Camping became arrogant. When people asked why this amazing prophecy had never been understood by Bible scholars before, he claimed that the Lord waited until a man competent to figure it all out came along, 'Namely, me,' he said. "Well of course it was all a big foolishness, but when asked about it later Mr. Camping said, 'I cannot lose either way, if I am right I am right, but if I am wrong I will still have caused many people to repent and believe in Jesus.' The problem is that Mr. Camping was wrong on both counts. Not only did the world not end in 1994, his false prophecy only gave many unbelievers another opportunity to despise the Bible. False prophecy does not save people, it sends them to hell. "We cannot expect false prophecies to end. We will continue to have false prophecies, some of them made by very sincere Christians, but the very fact that they are given in the name of Christ makes them dangerous. Christ will come again, but trying to figure out when is itself a sin. Jesus said on several occasions that the time of His coming is secret. 'No one knows,' He said, 'not even the angels in heaven' (Matt. 24:36)...." http://www.rcus.org/publications/reformed_herald/rhmar00.htm \______________________________________________________________ Let's take a look now at that article I mentioned earlier by Harold Camping, since I suspect that some CATI readers cannot believe that Harold Camping (or anyone else!) could really be teaching what he is teaching. I do not intend to deal with his radical, idiosyncratic re-interpretations in the area of Biblical prophecy (his abilities in that area or lack thereof may perhaps be fairly judged by his book _1994?_), but it may be of interest to look at Camping's own statements (and to interact with them) rather than contenting ourselves with a paraphrase of his position. Family Radio is not a church, but a parachurch organization. Harold Camping wouldn't necessarily be troubled by that fact because, according to him, God is now dispensing with the church in favor of "a ministry like Family Radio." Note that "as [you] look at the church [you] attend," according to Harold Camping, you should "deplore what [you] are seeing," because "something drastic ... is happening in even the most conservative of the churches" (but apparently not in Family Radio!): "On the one hand we see churches everywhere becoming more and more apostate. Yet on the other hand we see a ministry like Family Radio becoming more and more useful to the Lord in sending the true Gospel into the world. Virtually everyone [sic] of us, as we look at the church we attend, and as we look at the other churches in our city, deplore what we are seeing.... Indeed any spiritually minded believer must admit something drastic has happened and is happening in even the most conservative of the churches. How can it be then that a ministry like Family Radio appears to be increasingly blessed as it is able to share the true Gospel with an increasingly large percentage of the world's population.... [T]here appears to be a major contradiction between the Biblical prediction of the expectation of an increasingly dead church and the actuality of a robust healthy presentation of the Gospel by means of an organization like Family Radio...." http://www.familyradio.com/cross/tract/church.htm By the way, Mr. Camping usually doesn't end a question with a question mark, but with a period. I'm not sure why that is (unless his questions are not intended to be real questions, since he himself is providing the answers). Yes, some churches may be becoming "apostate," but are there not yet today some "faithful churches"? "Yes," says, Camping, "but....": "But there is a larger plan of God that must be looked at. This plan shows that a time will come when God will no longer use the churches and congregations to bring the Gospel to the world. They instead will come under the wrath of God.... Even though many churches and denominations insist that the Bible is the only infallible Word of God, they cling to a number of doctrines of men rather than submit entirely to the truth of the Bible.... If we can still find or are still a part of a church that is reasonably true to the Bible, should we remain there.... Fact is, what are we to do if we could find a church where it appears that each and every doctrine they hold and teach is faithful to the Word of God.... No longer are you to be under the spiritual rulership of the church. This command is given because God is finished with the era of churches being used of God to evangelize.... http://www.familyradio.com/cross/tract/church.htm According to Camping, the fact that "God is finished with the era of churches" means also that God is finished with pastors, elders, and deacons: "The churches of today have had their candlestick removed.... The church has ceased to be an institution or divine 0rganism to serve God as His appointed representative on earth.... If the church age has come to an end, what are the believers to do who are members of churches.... If a person or family is a member of a church they can withdraw their membership and fellowship on sundays with whomever there may be who are of like mind.... [H]e has become convinced that the church era has come to an end and the church no longer has any divine authority.... If a congregation decides to be obedient to this command they can reorganize their congregation from a church congregation, to become a fellowship of believers. The elders will no longer be elders. The deacons will no longer be deacons. The Pastor will no longer be pastor. In other words no individuals will have spiritual rule over the congregation.... [T]he church as a corporate institution has no spiritual authority...." http://www.familyradio.com/cross/tract/church.htm No pastors? But Family Radio includes broadcasts of programs by pastors, pastors of churches with elders and deacons. And not all of the programs carried by Family Radio agree entirely in doctrine, and even fewer programs agree with Harold Camping that "the church age has come to an end." (In fact, do any such programs agree with him?) Why does Family Radio carry all these programs (especially when the President of Family Radio, Harold Camping, presumably thinks that we can trust Family Radio more than churches governed by pastors, elders, and deacons)? Scripture tells us something about pastors and teachers: "It was [Christ] who gave ... some to be pastors and teachers, to prepare God's people for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up until we all reach unity in the faith and in the knowledge of the Son of God and become mature, attaining to the full measure of the fullness of Christ. Then we will no longer be infants, tossed back and forth by the waves, and blown here and there by every wind of teaching and by the cunning and craftiness of men in their deceitful scheming. Instead, speaking the truth in love, we will in all things grow up into him who is the Head, that is, Christ" (Eph. 4:11-15). Most people would take this passage to be saying that "until we all reach unity in the faith, attaining to the full measure of the fullness of Christ" (something that has not yet taken place) "pastors and teachers" will be used of God "to prepare God's people for works of service." Mr. Camping apparently would have us believe, however, that that function will be taken over by Family Radio and by similar ministries (although it is never explained how they will be protected from serious doctrinal error). If you are a member of a conservative congregation which seeks to be faithful to the Scriptures, I believe that the following exhortation to you has not been revoked, but is still God's command to you: "Obey your leaders and submit to their authority. They keep watch over you as men who must given an account. Obey them so that their work will be a joy, not a burden, for that would be of no advantage to you" (Heb. 13:17). If Family Radio is wrong (and I believe Harold Camping's views are indeed wrong here), then it is a serious thing indeed for him to urge Christians to reject that Scripture as no longer relevant and to urge them to refuse to submit to godly men in the God-ordained offices of pastor, elder, and deacon. Yes, Camping may be sincere in his (mis)interpretation of Scripture, but his teaching that "the church age has come to an end" and that we are to ignore what the Bible has to say about pastors, elders, and deacons (and indeed about the church as a corporate body) as therefore now irrelevant is a dangerous teaching, for it takes away from the Word of God. If Family Radio is wrong (as I believe) and the church age has not come to an end, then Christians must continue to be obedient to (and grateful for) what God has revealed in the Bible concerning pastors, elders, deacons, and the glorious body of Christ, "God's household, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and foundation of the truth" (1 Tim. 3:15). To explore this topic further, see the following: Family Radio Is Wrong http://www.familyradioiswrong.com/ P.S. When it is said that "Family Radio Is Wrong," what is meant is that Harold Camping, President of Family Radio, is wrong about the church age having come to an end. I do want to say that Family Radio does still broadcast many worthwhile programs, such as "God's Word Today" by the late Dr. James M. Boice, pastor of Tenth Presbyterian Church (PCA), Philadelphia. Such programs, of course, do not agree with Camping's radical views concerning the church. If God is blessing Family Radio, I believe it is because of Family Radio's broadcasting of programs by Dr. James M. Boice, Dr. Joel Nederhood, and other godly pastors in God's Church. _______________________________________________________________ 2. BIBLE/NOSTRADAMUS PREDICION OF THE "TWIN TOWERS" TRAGEDY? Was the destruction of the World Trade Center predicted by the Bible? Doesn't it say somewhere in the Good Book that "the twin towers will crumble"? Sure it does! It's right after the verses "God helps those who help themselves" and "He that bloweth not his own horn, by whom then shall it be blown?" Which is to say, that many statements attributed to the Bible by popular opinion do not in fact appear in Holy Writ. The Bible Gateway Web site responds to this question and to related questions: "Q. Is there a verse that mentions 'The twin towers will crumble...' or 'In the City of God there will be a great thunder...'? A. No. Phrases that may appear to be verses, ... 'In the City of God there will be a great thunder, Two brothers torn apart by Chaos, while the fortress endures, the great leader will succumb,' 'The third big war will begin when the big city is burning,' ... 'the twin towers will crumble' and 'After the two metal birds make the twin brothers fall, it shall be the end' have been attributed to the Bible. In fact, these phrases do not appear in the Bible at all. Many others have attributed these predictions to Nostradamus, but this too is false." http://bible.gospelcom.net/bg/bible_faq.html#99 Nostradamus was a famous French astrologer and seer who lived in the 16th century. He is falsely credited with predicting many events of the 20th century. His "success" is built on the same principles of success of modern astrologers and writers of horoscopes: if you make your predictions vague enough, they can be applied to (and "proven" by) almost anything that happens. One widely circulated email message put together various fragments from Nostradamus with words that were not his and claimed that this supposed "prediction" of the Twin Towers tragedy was written by Nostradamus in 1654. (The email does not explain how this was possible, since Nostradamus died in 1566!) The "Urban Legends" reference pages at Snopes.com contain some appropriate words from Barbara "la cosa nostradamus" [so she calls herself] Mikkelson concerning the Nostradamus prediction: "This prophecy is truly the Mr. Potato Head of predictions -- if the parts don't fit to your liking, just rearrange them and try again. Just once, we'd like someone to (accurately) tell us what one of Nostradamus' "prophecies" means in advance of the events it supposedly describes.... If Nostradamus was such a profound prophet, then why is it that not one person in the world was able to decipher his "prediction" in time to sound a warning about the horrors of 11 September 2001? Bottom line: A prediction that can only be interpreted after the events it supposedly foresees have occurred is not a "prediction" at all. If I could spew out a thousand vague "prophecies" and not have to explain what they meant until after the events they supposedly predicted had occurred, I'm sure I could manage a pretty impressive record for accuracy too." http://www.snopes2.com/rumors/predict.htm A number of variations of the bogus Nostradamus prophey have been going around on the Internet. Mikkelson gives a rather thorough analysis of the particular version: "In the City of God there will be a great thunder, Two brothers torn apart by Chaos, while the fortress endures, the great leader will succumb, The third big war will begin when the big city is burning" Sound impressive? Yes, perhaps, until you take time to explore the background, as Barbara Mikkelson does: "Nostradamus did not write the quatrain now being attributed to him.... It originated with a student at Brock University in Canada in 1997, appearing on a web page essay on Nostradamus. That particular quatrain was offered by the page's author, Neil Marshall, as a fabricated example to illustrate how easily an important-sounding prophecy can be crafted through the use of abstract imagery. He pointed out how the terms he used were so deliberately vague they could be interpreted to fit any number of cataclysmic events.... It appears someone mistook Marshall's illustrative example for an actual Nostradamus prophecy and, not content to let well enough alone, added 'The third big war will begin when the big city is burning.' A fabrication was thus further fabricated." http://www.snopes2.com/rumors/predict.htm Even more additions were made (including some actual words from Nostradamus), and Mikkelson gives the full details about how this "prophecy" added even more details after the event supposedly prophesied in it. For some time after the "twin tower" tragedy, the most popular search term on the Web was not anything that you might have guessed, but was "Nostradamus," a fact which may suggest something about the gullibility of people around the world. The Bible (which warns against following false prophets) has proven its accuracy through the centuries, but people, it seems, would rather pursue a lie than the truth, preferring to trust in the words of a dead man (Nostradamus) rather than in the Word of the living God. The Bible did not predict the World Trade Center disaster, but it did accurately predict events much more important, viz., the birth, death, and resurrection of Christ. The recent attack on America, however, has led to many related hoaxes on the Web: "Did Nostradamus predict the attacks? Did CNN fake Palestinian celebrations? Did Canadian writer Gordon Sinclair rise from the dead to comment on the attacks? Did a camera capture a photo of an unlucky tourist at the top of the WTC just before one of the planes hit? (answers: no, no, no and no)" http://www.sree.net/tips/2001sept.html If you are interested in exploring further what's a hoax and what's true in what's going around the Internet concerning the attack on America (as well as the supposed Nostradamus prediction), here are some resources: ABCNews: "Prophecies and Predictions" by John Allen Paulos http://abcnews.go.com/sections/scitech/WhosCounting/whoscounting010927.html About.com: Urban Legends and Folklore: Sept. 11 Terrorist attacks stoke the Internet rumor mill Part 1: Rumor Watch http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/weekly/aa091101a.htm Part 2: Did CNN Fake News Footage? http://urbanlegends.miningco.com/library/weekly/aa091101aa.htm Part 3: Did Nostradamus Predict the Tragedy? http://urbanlegends.miningco.com/library/weekly/aa091101b.htm ChristianAnswers.Net: Did Nostradamus predict the bombing of the Twin Towers in New York? http://www.christiananswers.net/q-comfort/nostradamus.html Crosswalk.com: Nostradamus and the Attack on New York http://news.crosswalk.com/partner/Article_Display_Page/0,,PTID74088%7CCHID369500%7CCIID852884,00.html CSICOP: Terrorist Attack HoaxWatch http://www.csicop.org/hoaxwatch/ How Stuff Works: How Nostradamus Works http://www.howstuffworks.com/nostradamus.htm Snopes.com: Rumors of War (Did Bert, the Sesame Street muppet, appear on posters carried by supporters of Osama bin Laden? You may be surprised by the answer!) http://www.snopes2.com/rumors/rumors.htm _______________________________________________________________ 3. SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION FOR THIS NEWSLETTER This is the sixty-first issue of a free newsletter devoted to Christians And The Internet ("CATI," pronounced "Katy," but spelled with a "C" and an "I" for "Christians" and the "Internet"). To subscribe, write to email@example.com, including the word "Subscribe" in the Subject line and including in the body your real name and the email address to which you wish CATI sent. Past issues: you'll find archives of past issues of CATI available online at http://traver.org/cati/. ("It's not a pretty site," but hopefully it may be a useful one.) ________________________________________________________________ Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this newsletter is Copyright (C) 2001 by Barry Traver, All Rights Reserved. For permission to reproduce material from this newsletter, contact Barry Traver at firstname.lastname@example.org. Permission is hereby granted, however, to pass along this issue to others, provided that (1) no changes are made and (2) it is passed along in its entirety.