"Christians And The Internet" newsletter CATI, Vol. 3, No. 8: February 22, 2002. _______________________________________________________________ TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INKLINGS #2: CHARLES WILLIAMS AND J.R.R. TOLKIEN (CONT.) 2. REPRINT: HOW TO COPY, PASTE, & PRINT TEXT FROM WEB PAGES #1 3. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS: INFORMATION ON CATI NEWSLETTER _______________________________________________________________ The latest revision of this issue of "CATI" can be accessed online at http://traver.org/cati/archives/cati71.htm. The Web page edition makes it especially easy to visit the links. Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this newsletter is Copyright (C) 2002 by Barry Traver, All Rights Reserved. See the end of this issue for more information on "CATI." _______________________________________________________________ 1. INKLINGS #2: CHARLES WILLIAMS AND J.R.R. TOLKIEN (CONT.) "The telephone bell was ringing wildly, but without result, since there was no-one in the room, but the corpse." Certain novels have rather memorable first lines. In British literature, for example, many people would recognize "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times...." as the start of A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens. And many would also recognize "It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife." as marking the beginning of Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. Similarly in American literature, "Call me Ishmael" would be recognized by many as the short beginning of a long book, Moby Dick by Herman Melville. And probably everyone would know at once that "You don't know about me without you have read a book by the name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; but that ain't no matter." as the beginning of the book The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. Well, I've always regarded the sentence at the beginning of this article as a very memorable beginning of a novel, even though few people today know of the novel or its author. The book is titled War in Heaven, and its author is a man named Charles Williams, whom TIME Magazine once described as "one of the most gifted and influential Christian writers England has produced this [i.e., the twentieth] century." Charles Williams was a member of an informal group of writers at Oxford University known as The Inklings, a group that included other authors who are better known today, viz., C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, and Dorothy L. Sayers. A biography of Dorothy Sayers is titled Such a Strange Lady. Such she indeed was, and strange as well in their individual ways were Lewis, Tolkien, and Williams. All were "Christian" writers, worthy of being read, but none were what you could accurately describe as Protestant evangelicals or Reformed Christians, and each had definite eccentricities, theological and otherwise. Although Williams wrote theological works (Such as Descent of the Dove, dealing with the active work of the Holy Spirit in the history of the Church), I want to be clear that I do not recommend him as a theological guide. In theology, he seems to represent a strange blend of Christian mysticism that is uniquely his own. Like Dorothy Sayers (and T.S. Eliot), Charles Williams also tried his hand at religious drama. Like C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien, he also had an interest in Arthurian legend and the mythical past in British literature. In short, while in some ways the Inklings were very different, yet in other ways they shared many of the same interests. Williams is best known, however, for his supernatural novels or (as he himself described them) "metaphysical thrillers," such as War in Heaven, whose first sentence I quoted as the first sentence of this article. I am not necessarily recommending that you read his fiction, for "he appeals only to a special taste" (as one biographer put it). The closest parallel I can think of at the moment is C.S. Lewis's That Hideous Strength, the third book in Lewis's space trilogy. If you've read and liked that book, you may enjoy reading Williams's novels. (Then again you may not.) Williams wrote seven novels in all: Place of the Lion, War in Heaven, All Hallows Eve, Many Dimensions, Shadows of Ecstasy, The Greater Trumps, and Descent into Hell: "...unlike much fantasy fiction, they deal not with imaginary magical worlds but with the irruption of supernatural elements into everyday life. A legal officer has bequeathed to him the original set of Tarot cards; the investigation of a murder in a publisher's office merges with the rediscovery of the Holy Grail; the ghost of a girl killed in an accident helps thwart a plot for world domination...." http://www.geocities.com/charles_wms_soc/ Since the novels contain references to pagan magic, Christians should not read the books uncritically, but rather should read them (if they read them at all) with a questioning, discerning spirit. Contrary to TIME's description of Williams as "one of the most gifted and influential Christian writers England has produced this century," I think most CATI readers will get more out of Lewis, Sayers, and Tolkien. Nevertheless, if you'd like to know more about this lesser-known member of the Inklings, here are some relevant Web sites you can check out: CHARLES WILLIAMS: The Charles Williams Society http://www.geocities.com/charles_wms_soc/ Charles Williams and Inklings Links http://www.coinherence.faithweb.com/links.htm The Web of Exchange http://www.coinherence.faithweb.com/ Incidentally, I'm not persuaded that the mere presence of witches or wizards in a book makes that book non-Christian or anti-Christian. There's a witch in C.S. Lewis's The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, and Gandalf the Wizard is important in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. The Bible itself makes mention of witches and wizards. The question is not whether such things appear in a book, but how the book deals with them. And, of course, this is a subject concerning which not all Christians are agreed. Even though I taught a course in "Christian Fantasy" for a number of years on the college level, I don't think Christians are _required_ to read such books, and I respect those who have decided for whatever reasons to spend their time on other pursuits and activities. Our time on earth is limited, and each of us before God has the responsibility before God of determining the best use of his or her time (Phil. 4:8-9; Col. 4:5-6). Personally, I think that a case can be made that The Hobbit is among those things which are "true, noble, right, pure, lovely, admirable, excellent, and praiseworthy." And there is a great spiritual struggle currently taking place between good and evil, a struggle we can also taking place in The Lord of the Rings in its portrayal of reality. Yes, I'm a Tolkien fan, but you're entirely at liberty to disagree with me concerning my high regard for these books. Last week I provided an extensive list of Web sites (most of them secular) relating to J.R.R. Tolkien. This week I have some more Tolkien-related Web addresses for you, but all of these deal primarily with spiritual matters, including in particular the place of Christianity in the consideration of The Lord of the Rings and "the Tolkien phenomenon": J.R.R. TOLKIEN AND THE LORD OF THE RINGS "Analysis of The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring with Addendum" (CAP -- ChildCare Action Project: Christian Analysis of Contemporary Culture) "I am not going to try to debate the claims that Tolkien's Rings trilogy parallels shards of the Truth shattered from the Bible. Satan is very good at making the truth into a lie through the most innocent vehicles and by the least obvious methods.... The bottom line is that God clearly commands that witchcraft, sorcery and wizardry are evil.... There is no such thing as a "good" witch. Not even Wendy.... Comparisons are being drawn of Frodo to Jesus because of the portrayal of self-sacrifice.... Gandalf dying in sacrifice of himself for the lives of others and later being resurrected does not fit the picture of the Crucifixion and Resurrection but is a counterfeiting of them." http://www.capalert.com/capreports/lordofrings_fellowship.htm "Biography of J.R.R. Tolkien (1892-1973)" by Ralph C. Wood (Leadership U; the author is professor of English at Baylor University and a Tolkien expert) "Indeed, it was largely through Tolkien's influence that Lewis returned to the church as a confessing Christian. Largely through his own reading and thinking, Lewis had abandoned his earlier skepticism and had come to believe, albeit reluctantly, in God. Yet as a theist, Lewis could believe in Jesus of Nazareth only as a noble ethical example whom we are meant to follow: not as the incarnate, crucified and risen Christ, the very Son of God. These latter notions are but myths.... In a late-night conversation during the spring of 1929, ... Tolkien explained to Lewis that myths are not the dream-wishes that lonely men project onto an empty universe to cheer themselves up. The great mythic repetitions of dying and rising gods ... are signs of something transcendently significant.... However misguided pagan myths may sometimes be, they point toward the Truth.... Lewis was so convinced of this argument, as Tolkien laid it out in 1929, that it led to his own re-conversion to Christian faith." http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/wood-biography.html "Finding God in the Lord of the Rings" by Jim Ware (Plugged In; originally published in Breakaway, Focus on the Family) "...[A]t its deepest level, The Lord of the Rings is also a tale about the sovereignty of God. The God whose love and power are so great that He is able to work all things together for good (Romans 8:28). The God who uses even the Enemy's wicked designs to bring about the ultimate fulfillment of His perfect plan. Within that plan, even Gollum has an indispensable part to play in the saving of Middle-earth. As Tolkien wrote in The Silmarillion, 'Evil may yet be good to have been...and yet remain evil.' This is a great mystery and a profound Christian truth." http://www.family.org/pplace/pi/lotr/A0018586.cfm "The Gospel According to J.R.R. Tolkien" (unsigned article which originally appeared in the Boston Globe, January 18, 2002) "Tim Keller, a conservative Presbyterian minister in Manhattan, first read The Lord of the Rings when the woman who is now his wife gave him a copy at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. Both are now Tolkien fanatics: They read the trilogy several times a year, are familiar with everything Tolkien has written, and Tim Keller has learned Elvish. But Keller stirred up controversy when he tried to praise Harry Potter in a sermon at his church, arguing that the books do a good job portraying evil as a force in the world, portraying the power of the supernatural, and glorifying the importance of sacrificial love as seen when Harry Potter's mother dies saving her infant son...." http://www.cesnur.org/2002/potter_004.htm "A Hero by Any Name" by David Learn (from Plugged In, Focus on the Family) "Among many other things, The Lord of the Rings is a book about what makes a nobody a hero. The book tells primarily the story of Frodo Baggins, a 50-year-old hobbit who enjoys a sedentary lifestyle--but who has also inherited the Ring of the book's title.... In the hands of many writers, the story would unfold around Frodo's efforts to master the Ring and to turn its power against [the evil] Sauron. There would be a tremendous battle, Sauron would be defeated, and Frodo would become the wise, just and undisputed ruler of Middle-earth. [But it doesn't happen like that.] "This odd definition of heroism marks Tolkien's work, and he in turn drew it from the Bible. Jesus models a different sort of heroism from the kind we see in popular movies like Gladiator or even in legends like Robin Hood and King Arthur. Just as Jesus made an unlikely messiah by being a low-born carpenter and bypassing chances to gain political power, Tolkien's heroes break with ... convention.... It is just this quiet, humble heroism that Tolkien upholds in The Lord of the Rings." http://www.family.org/pplace/pi/lotr/A0018570.cfm "The Hobbit’s Life: J.R.R. Tolkien and the Joy of Fantasy" by Patrick W. Curles "A popular British magazine recently surveyed its readers to get their opinions about the best book of all time. Thousands responded. The landslide winner for the top spot in history: The Lord of the Rings, by J.R.R. Tolkien.... I, for one, couldn’t agree more with this assessment.... Tolkien’s work has had an impact upon me like no other author." [Patrick Curles is a pastor of Trinity Presbyterian Church PCA in Montgomery, Alabama.] http://www.goodnewsmag.org/magazine/1JanFeb/jf02hobbit.html "'Lord of the Rings' at Hollywood Jesus" by Andrew Carega (author of Evangelism: Sharing the Gospel in Cyberspace and webmaster of e-vangelism.com, a Web site devoted to "Internet evangelism") "One insightful site, from a spiritual perspective, is 'Lord of the Rings at Hollywood Jesus'. As part of David Bruce's content-rich Hollywood Jesus site, this LotR site provides an in-depth look at the spiritual messages in Tolkien's work, along with movie clips, news about the movie, great images from the movie and other, more classic LotR artwork, and an area for discussion about the movie and the books.... We ... are pleased to designate 'Lord of the Rings at Hollywood Jesus' as our E-vangelism Site of the Week...." http://www.e-vangelism.com/spotlight/apr1601.html "'Lord of the Rings'" Box Office Fueled by Christian Perspective" by Patrick Goodenough (FamilyResources.net) "Billed as one of the biggest movie events in years, the first in the "Lord of the Rings" trilogy...has become a major talking point among Christians.... 'As with Harry Potter, many parents are wondering whether…"Lord of the Rings," with all of its violence, monsters, and even some magic, is appropriate for them and/or their children,' says Canada's pro-life and pro-family Lifesite. 'The movie…is closely based on the J.R.R. Tolkien three-part novel of the same title,' it says. 'What is not so well known is that the book, and its epic struggles between good and evil, was written with a strong Catholic Christian perspective." http://www.familyresources.net/lordoftherings.html "The Lord of the Rings: Fellowship of the Ring: A Hollywood Jesus Movie Review" by Greg Wright Greg Wright's review is just one item to be found in this amazing section of David Bruce's Hollywood Jesus Web site, a site which deals with the interaction of Christianity and contemporary movies. As elsewhere on Hollywood Jesus, you will be struck by the visuals (it may take a while for the images to load in with a slower modem, but it's worth the wait!), but on the same page as the review you'll find links to much more material of interest. It's no wonder that David Bruce's treatment of "LotR" was given a special award by the e-vangelism Web site. Check it out! http://www.hollywoodjesus.com/lord_of_the_rings.htm "'Lord of the Rings' has Ring of the Christian Lord" by Jeff Robinson (Crossroad.com) "Near the end of his life, J.R.R. Tolkien ... received a letter from a young girl posing a question concerning the chief end of man. Tolkien ... provided the youngster an answer that lends insight into the worldview of the realm in which he casts his fantasy novels. 'It may be said that the purpose of life for any one of us is to increase according to our capacity, our knowledge of God by all the means we have and to be moved by it to praise and [give] thanks,' he wrote. '[To God we must say,] "We praise you, we call you holy, we worship you, we proclaim your glory, we thank you for the greatness of your splendor."' http://news.crosswalk.com/partner/Article_Display_Page/0,,PTID74088%7CCHID194343%7CCIID1109734,00.html "Lord of the Rings: Online Christian Resources" (GospelCom.Net) "Browse through these LotR-related articles, commentaries, and reviews at Gospelcom.net. Find out what other Christians have to say about the man, the books, and now the movie!" http://www.gospelcom.net/features/lotr/ "The Marketing of Middle Earth" by Michael S. Beates (an article which originally appeared in the Dallas/Fort Worth Star-Telegram) "But one thing in Middle Earth was simple: There were things good, true and beautiful; and there were things wicked, malicious and ugly. Right and wrong could not be confused.... In Tolkien's day, absolutes were clear, and this came through in his characters (by the way, satisfyingly depicted, in my opinion, in Peter Jackson's film adaptation). Tolkien's good characters display virtues like humility, courage and self-sacrifice.... Tolkien meant to draw readers to the good and the true. But we are supposed to be repulsed by the ugliness and unmitigated evil of others. But ... much has changed since Tolkien first wrote and I first read...." [Michael Beates is dean of students at Reformed Theological Seminary in Orlando, Florida.] http://www.dfw.com/mld/startelegram/news/editorial/2496142.htm "Powerful Rings: Movie version of Tolkien's book speaks to today's culture" by Gene Edward Veith (World Magazine) "Though the movie goes on for nearly three hours--twice the length of a typical Hollywood movie--the narration moves so quickly that one wishes it would linger for awhile. Yes, it has some very dark images, but recognizing the difference between darkness and light is exactly what our culture needs." http://www.worldmag.com/world/issue/01-12-02/cultural_1.asp "Still Ringing True: Reading The Lord of the Rings--this time as an adult--remains an overwhelming experience" by Gene Edward Veith (World Magazine) "'Here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron; here is a book that will break your heart.' That blurb on the back cover of the old Ballantine edition of The Lord of the Rings captured exactly the way I felt, as a 14-year-old having just finished the last book of Tolkien's trilogy.... Then I was 14; now I am 50. Then I was just waking up to a love of reading; now I am an English professor, a professional reader.... Reading it again after all those years, I ... know I understood it better this time--seeing it not as just a children's book but as a work that raises issues only adults can fully grasp--and I can say that it was just as good and maybe better the second time around." http://www.worldmag.com/world/issue/12-08-01/national_1.asp "Tapping Tolkien to Teach Teens" by Kurt Bruner (as published in Plugged In, Focus on the Family) "The Lord of the Rings is a tale of redemption in which the main characters overcome cowardly self-preservation to model heroic self-sacrifice. Their bravery mirrors the greatest heroic rescue of all time, when Christ 'humbled himself and became obedient to death-even death on a cross.'" http://www.family.org/pplace/pi/lotr/A0018574.cfm "Tolkien and The Lord of the Rings" by David Cloud (Way of Life Literature, a Fundamental Baptist ministry) The following brief quotation is in accordance with the "fair use" provision of U.S. Copyright Law, and the entire article can be read at the Web address cited: "Is the Lord of the Rings harmless fantasy or perhaps even a wholesome Christian allegory? We think not. I read The Hobbit and ... The Lord of the Rings in 1971.... I was...at the time...very antagonistic to the Christian faith; and had the books contained even a hint of Bible truth, I can assure you that I would not have read them at that particular point in my life. Though I have forgotten many of the details of the books, I can recall very vividly that they are filled with occultic imagery...." (Mr. Cloud apparently does not like to be partially quoted, but the law does permit such quotation and you can go to his Web site and read more, if you wish.) http://www.wayoflife.org/fbns/tolkien-lordoftherings.html "Tolkien's Impact in Literature and Life" by Patrick W. Curles [This is the original PCANews.Com version of the essay "The Hobbit's Life" essay mentioned elsewhere on this list. Again, Patrick Curles is a pastor in the PCA, i.e., the Presbyterian Church in America.] http://www.christianity.com/partner/Article_Display_Page/0,,PTID23682%7CCHID125099%7CCIID683300,00.html Tolkien's Ordinary Virtues: Exploring the Spiritual Themes of The Lord of the Rings by Mark Eddy Smith No, you won't find this InterVarsity Press book online, but you can download excerpts as a PDF file as well as read a description of the book (a book which, by the way, I have not yet seen personally). Here are comments from the publisher: "Echoing Tolkien's views on the workings of story, [Mark Eddy Smith] concludes that 'while it can never supplant the Bible, [The Lord of the Rings] may do its part to supplement it, so that we see again, from a different perspective, the same essential and eternal truths.' Here then, is a book that mines the gold from Middle-earth, both for long-time fans and for those just getting acquainted with Tolkien and his universe." http://www.gospelcom.net/cgi-ivpress/book.pl/code=2312 "Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings: A Christian Classic Revisited" by Ralph C. Wood (Leadership U) "Dr. Ralph Wood, Professor of English at Baylor University, is a Tolkien expert and has studied Christian literary classics and the Inklings.... He taught for 26 years at Wake Forest University, where he won awards for distinguished teaching." http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/wood-classic.html "Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings: A Book for Our Time of Terror" by Ralph C. Wood (Leadership U) "[We note] Tolkien's unaccountable popularity, and thus the charge that he appeals only to readers who desire to escape from reality. The contrary truth is that the Rings-epic is indeed an escape--from the prison of spiritual death and unprecedented evil, and thus an escape into the freedom and joy of spiritual life and unprecedented good." http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/wood-rings.html "Tolkien's Theology of the Ring: Lord of the Rings -- A Christian Classic?" by Charles Henderson (christianity.about.com) "To begin, the Rings trilogy is profoundly Christian. Tolkien and his colleague C. S. Lewis ... often discussed the ways in which the Christian faith could be expressed in alternative shapes and forms. They believed that one can communicate the content of Christianity without merely repeating Bible verses, or works lifted from traditional creeds or confessions. And they both set out to create a new literature that would speak to traditional Christians as well as to readers who were alienated from Christianity. Tolkien in particular wanted to create a literature in which the faith was implied rather than imposed, and suggested rather than preached." http://christianity.about.com/library/weekly/aa123001.htm "Will Fantasy Fans Grab the Ring?" by Craig Bird (FaithWorks) "Yet at its heart, The Lord of the Rings -- according to Tolkien himself and his closest associates -- is grounded in an unstinting Christian conviction that, at the end of time, God will finally and forever defeat evil. The soul of Tolkien’s story is anchored in the truth of the incarnation and the resurrection of Jesus Christ." http://www.faithworks.com/archives/fantasy_fans_ring.htm _______________________________________________________________ 2. REPRINT: HOW TO COPY, PASTE, & PRINT TEXT FROM WEB PAGES #1 [This article is being reprinted with some minor updating from CATI, Vol. 2, No. 15. One reason I'm reprinting it is that -- as in the case of my article(s) on downloading, unzipping, and installing files from the Internet -- for some reason I never followed through with a "#2," an omission I hope to rectify in the next issue.] One of the most useful skills related to the World Wide Web is knowing how to copy, paste, and print text from a Web page. If you're a novice, this series of CATI articles will teach you how to do that. Even if you consider yourself an expert in this area, I think you'll find here some new and useful tips that you will not find elsewhere. When I prepare to preach, I rarely write down the full text of what I intend to say -- that is, my own personal comments on the Biblical text -- but I do ordinarily write down the full text of the Biblical text itself that I intend to quote, since I want to be sure that I quote accurately. Recently, I have found the Bible Gateway Web site to be a very helpful aid to accomplishing that: Bible Gateway http://bible.gospelcom.net/ Since I preach at different churches and since they often have different "standard" translations in the pews, I like to quote accurately the translation with which the congregation is most familiar, whether it be KJV, NASB, NIV, or NKJV. With Bible Gateway, this is a relatively simple task to accomplish. Before we get into the specifics of how to copy, paste, and print text from a Web page, I should perhaps say something about the matter of copyright. My comments should not be taken as legal advice, but simply as common-sense comments on questions of ethics. There is a lot of worthwhile text on the Web you can freely access, including many books that are now public domain rather than being currently protected by copyright. Here are some resources for finding books and articles that you can access online: GENERAL BOOKS AND ARTICLES: Alex Catalogue of Electronic Texts http://www.infomotions.com/alex/ Bartleby.com http://www.bartleby.com/ bibliomania http://www.bibliomania.com/ BUBL LINK: Book and Text Collections http://www.bubl.ac.uk/link/types/books.htm Free Library of Classics http://www.information-resources.com/Library/library.html Internet Public Library: Online Texts Collection http://www.ipl.org/reading/books/ On-Line Books Page http://digital.library.upenn.edu/books/ Project Gutenberg http://promo.net/pg/ CHRISTIAN BOOKS AND ARTICLES: Christian Classics Ethereal Library http://www.ccel.org/ Fire and Ice: Puritan and Reformed Writings http://www.puritansermons.com/toc.htm Guide to Christian Literature on the Internet http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/christian-books.html Hall of Church History (Phil Johnson) http://www.gty.org/~phil/hall.htm I.C.E. Free Books http://freebooks.entrewave.com/freebooks/sidefrm3.htm Legacy: Reformed & Puritan Christian Literature http://www.iserv.net/~mrbill/Legacy.html Rose Tree Press http://www.rosetree.com/ Some of these sites are more helpful than others, and you should (as always on the Web) exercise Christian discretion. For more details on each site, see the following article that was previously published in CATI: Buying Books And/Or Reading Books on the Web http://traver.org/cati/archives/cati46.htm#1 The Bible says, "Thou shalt not steal." This does not cause a problem for textual material that is in the public domain, because that material belongs to you, since you are part of "the public." But what about copyrighted works, books and articles that are legally owned by someone else? How are you to deal with such text? First, as in the case of anything owned by someone else, you can do with someone else's property whatever the owner of that property has given you permission to do, without your violating the Biblical commandment against stealing. Second, certain use may be made legally and ethically of copyrighted material even without the direct permission of the copyright owner. By the way, I am not that familiar with copyright laws in other countries, but presumably they would be similar to U.S. copyright law. But I am not a lawyer and do not pretend to be qualified to offer legal advice concerning copyright law. The best that I can do is to attempt to suggest some ethical guidelines related to some of the issues involved. First, legally and morally you can do with someone else's property whatever the owner of that property has given you permission to do. Sometimes the policy is stated explicitly at the site where the copyrighted material is found. For example, here is what Bible Gateway has to say concerning the Scripture on their site: "These Scriptures may be downloaded and saved locally on a computer for personal, non-commercial use only. These Scriptures may be re-printed for non-commercial use. Clearly, you are encouraged to use the Bible for personal use, and to quote from it. The goal of the copyright is to prevent others from profiting from the work that IBS, Nelson, or other translators have done." http://bible.gospelcom.net/bg/bible_faq.html#24 Bible Gateway also offers these comments: "Most of the Bibles provided here on the Bible Gateway are made available by the generosity of the publishers.... You are allowed to copy some Biblical material from the online Bibles, as long as you follow the copyright restrictions set forth by the publishers." http://bible.gospelcom.net/bg/bible_faq.html#24 Some of the publishers may provide more specific guidelines, such as the International Bible Society (publishers of the New International Version or NIV): "The NIV may be quoted in any form (written, visual, electronic or audio) up to and inclusive of five hundred (500) verses without the express written permission of the publisher, providing the verses quoted do not amount to a complete book of the Bible nor do the verses quoted account for more than 25 percent (25%) or more of the total text of the work in which they are quoted." http://www.gospelcom.net/ibs/bibles/use.html Second, certain use may be made legally and ethically of copyrighted material even without the direct permission of the copyright owner. Sometimes copyright owners may make claims which, if taken literally, are not supported by U.S. copyright law. For example, the following claim is made at the Web site of David W. Cloud, a "Fundamental Baptist": "This information may not be placed on other web sites or BBS sites." http://www.wayoflife.org/fbns/fbns-index/gospfbns.htm That is the claim, but it's not supported by U.S. copyright law. A particular expression or wording of information or ideas may be protected, but ... "Ideas and information, however, are not protected by copyright." http://www.umich.edu/~bhl/bhl/refhome/copyrt.htm More specifically, "Copyright protects the way in which information is presented, it does not protect facts, ideas or information. Taking information from another web site and expressing it in your own words does not infringe copyright." http://learningcommons.senecacollege.ca/learningcommons/Library/Copyright/electronicResources.html In addition, you should know that even the protection of the way in which information is presented is not absolute. You may quote a limited amount of material in certain situations and for certain purposes according to the "fair use" provision of U.S. copyright law (Title 17, United States Code, Section 107): "Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies ..., for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching..., scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work." http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.html For another example of a claim that is not supported by U.s. copyright law, let's again look at David W. Cloud's Web site. On that site the following claim is made in the "informational header" for his article "I Reject TULIP Theology" and elsewhere: "These articles cannot be stored on BBS or Internet sites and cannot be sold or placed by themselves or with other material in any electronic format for sale, but may be distributed for free by e-mail or by print. They must be left intact and nothing removed or changed, including these informational headers." http://www.wayoflife.org/fbns/ireject.htm But the second sentence--if taken literally--is contrary to the "fair use" provision of U.S. copyright law, which does permit the limited quotation of copyrighted works for, say, the purpose of criticism and critique. In the "I Reject TULIP Theology" article on David W. Cloud's Web site just mentioned, the following statements are made: "The Westminster Confession reflected John Calvin's system of predestinarian theology which has been summarized in five points by the acronym of TULIP: Total depravity of man, meaning man is incapable of responding to the Gospel; Unconditional election, meaning God chooses which men will be saved and which men will be lost; Limited atonement, meaning Christ died only for those who will be saved; Irresistible grace, meaning the sinner cannot resist God's call to salvation; and Perseverance of the saints, meaning those who are saved will hold out faithful to the end. We must hasten to say that the Westminster Confession's teaching in these areas is contrary to the plain statements of the Word of God." http://www.wayoflife.org/fbns/ireject.htm Now, I personally believe that the Westminster Confession of Faith accurately states the teaching of Scripture in these areas. Here are some places where you can find support for "TULIP theology" (the theology set forth in the Canons of the Synod of Dordt, part of the doctrinal standards of many churches in the Reformed tradition and greatly respected by many Presbyterian churches as well): A Puritan's Mind: T.U.L.I.P. http://www.apuritansmind.com/TULIP/TULIP.htm Coram Deo TULIP Page http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Cyprus/1548/TULIP.html The Five Points of Calvinism (CRTA site) (Center for Reformed Theology and Apologetics) http://www.reformed.org/calvinism/ The Five Points of Calvinism (by W.J. Seaton) http://www.graceonlinelibrary.org/calvinism/full.asp?ID=224 T.U.L.I.P., Or The Five Points of Calvinism http://www.bethelpca.org/5-points.htm Why the Name TULIP? http://www.tulip.org/tulip.html But that's not my main point here. My point is that the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law allows me to quote David W. Cloud's position and arguments and to respond to them, if I so choose, without reproducing his articles in their entirety (including "informational headers"). Without the fair use provision, people could publish (or post on a Web site) any nonsense they desired, and people who may hold a different position would be unfairly restricted in their opportunity to interact and respond. Actually, the fair use provision safeguards both sides. If I happen to oppose someone on a particular issue, I should be able to quote him out of fairness to him, so that I may be able to represent his opinion accurately and directly rather than my readers having to rely on my attempts at paraphrase. Incidentally, there is some worthwhile reading on David W. Cloud's Web site (and even when I disagree with his articles, they often make for interesting reading), so I do not intend this article to be a put-down of him or his ministry, even though I seriously disagree with him on certain issues. Such disagreement is to be expected, since he is a "Fundamental Baptist," while I am a conservative Presbyterian. The reason for mentioning him here is mainly to indicate that in certain defined situations, it is fair to quote copyrighted material even when the copyright owner (David W. Cloud or whoever) may not explicitly give permission to do so. Let's move on to the matter of copying and pasting text from a Web page. Future articles will include other "tips and tricks," but in this article I'll concentrate on just one in particular, what I call the "control-VAX" trick. That may not mean anything right now, but this useful technique should be clear by the end of this article. By the way, this article assumes, perhaps unfairly, that you are using Microsoft Windows. If you are using a different operating system, some of the following may not apply. First, we need to define some terms. We need to distinguish between what I call "plain text" and what I call "fancy text." "Plain text" is the text that you can create using an ordinary typewriter. It's simply what you get by pressing typewriter keys: letters, numerals, punctuation, spaces, and a limited number of symbols (mostly those you get by pressing the shift key and the number keys at the top of the keyboard). "Fancy text," however, is lots more. Here's where we get to see the "extras," things like different fonts (and different font sizes), bold, italics, underlining, tables, "bullets," and even pictures! On the computer you can create "plain text" using, say, a normal text editor such as Microsoft Notepad, but to create "fancy text" you need to use a word processor like WordPerfect or Microsoft Word (or at least a program like Microsoft WordPad, which is like a stripped down word processor). Second, we need to be familiar with some frequently-used Windows "shortcuts." For many (or most?) Windows programs, you do not have to use the top menu or even use a button toolbar to do common tasks like "copy" and "paste." You can instead use certain "combination keystrokes," where you press down the "Control" key (usually labeled "Ctrl"), press an appropriate letter key (such as "A," "C", "V," or "X"), and let up both keys. Here's a list of some common keystroke-combination shortcuts, used in many or most Windows programs: Ctrl-A - select All Ctrl-C - Copy Ctrl-X - Cut Ctrl-V - Paste Ctrl-O - Open Ctrl-S - Save Ctrl-P - Print For some of these, the first letter of the command suggests the shortcut (e.g., Copy, Open, Save, Print, and even select All). A memory aid for Cut (Ctrl-X) is that the letter "X" looks like a pair of scissors. And a memory aid for Paste is that the letter "V" looks a bit like the proofreading symbol sometimes used to indicate an insertion. That's the background you need to know at this point. Now you are ready to do some copying and pasting. For the sake of providing a specific example (for which you will be given step-by-step directions), let's assume that you are preparing a sermon or Sunday school lesson. Let's further assume that you like to use larger print for your notes to make for easier reading. Start up your favorite word processor (WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, or whatever), and set the font point size to 16. (For MS-Word, choose Format and then Font, change the Size to 16, and then click on OK.) Type in "Note that we are saved by grace and not by works:", press the Enter key a few times, type in "Note also that although we are not saved by works, we are saved to do good works.", and use the left arrow key to position the cursor (or "insertion point") somewhere in between those two statements. Minimize your word processor. (One way to do this is to click on the picture (or "icon") in the top-left corner of your word processor and choose Minimize.) Now connect to the Internet and go to the following Web site: Bible Gateway http://bible.gospelcom.net/ On the left side of the page, click the circle in front of your favorite translation, type "Eph. 2:8-10" (without the quotation marks) in the box in front of "Lookup," and click on "Lookup." That should take you to a new Web page where you will see the Scripture passage on the screen. At this point you want to copy the passage to the Windows clipboard. (Don't be afraid of the terminology; the Windows clipboard is simply a temporary storage place or "cubbyhole" where you will be temporarily storing the text, even though you will not physically see that clipboard.) How do you copy the passage? It's done in two steps. First, you need to "select" (or highlight) the material. If you want to select the entire Web page, that's simple: just press Ctrl-A (check the earlier chart). If you want to select just a part of the page, that's a bit more difficult: you need to click at the beginning of what you want to select, keep the left mouse button down, and move to the end of what you want to select. (That sort of thing is sometimes called "dragging" with the mouse.) Second (after the appropriate part of the page is selected or highlighted), press Ctrl-C to "Copy" the material to the Windows clipboard. Since you can't see the Windows clipboard, you'll have to take it "on faith" for now that the material was actually copied to the Windows clipboard. We'll confirm that in a moment. Now go back to your word processor. (To do that, you can most likely simply click on the appropriate button on your "task bar" which most Windows users have at the bottom of their screen.) When you do that, you should then see the "insertion point" blinking in the middle of your word processing document. Press Ctrl-V to "Paste" the text into your document at that point. There it is! "Yes, but....," you may be saying. The selected text did arrive safely (so that you can indeed be sure that you are accurately quoting Scripture in your sermon or Sunday School lesson), but what was pasted was the "fancy" stuff you saw on the Web page, whereas what you wanted was the "plain" text, text that would, for example, not be a different size from what you already typed in your document. When you want to copy and paste text, what you most often want is "plain text," not "fancy text." Unfortunately, when you go directly from the Web page to your word processor, what you get is "fancy text," not "plain text." Here is where we can use the "control-VAX" trick that I mentioned earlier. So we're going to insert a step in the middle to change "fancy text" to "plain text." Specifically, we will be using "control-VAX" with a text editor. Instead of going directly from the Web page to the word processor, we will be going from the Web page to a text editor to the word processor (and the text editor will change the "fancy text" to "plain text"). It's a lot simpler than it sounds, and the procedure will become almost automatic, once you've done it once or twice using the step-by-step directions given here. So please hang in there, because we're going through the entire process again (you were able to handle it before, right?), but we'll insert the text editor trick (using "control-VAX" as will be explained in a moment) in order to convert that "fancy text" to "plain text." Let's do it again! First, the first part of the process hasn't changed: Start up your favorite word processor (WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, or whatever), and set the font point size to 16. (For MS-Word, choose Format and then Font, change the Size to 16, and then click on OK.) Type in "Note that we are saved by grace and not by works:", press the Enter key a few times, type in "Note also that although we are not saved by works, we are saved to do good works.", and use the left arrow key to position the cursor (or "insertion point") somewhere in between those two statements. Minimize your word processor. (One way to do this is to click on the picture (or "icon") in the top-left corner of your word processor and choose Minimize.) Now connect to the Internet and go to the following Web site: Bible Gateway http://bible.gospelcom.net/ On the left side of the page, click the circle in front of your favorite translation, type "Eph. 2:8-10" (without the quotation marks) in the box in front of "Lookup," and click on "Lookup." That should take you to a new Web page where you will see the Scripture passage on the screen. At this point you want to copy the passage to the Windows clipboard. (Don't be afraid of the terminology; the Windows clipboard is simply a temporary storage place or "cubbyhole" where you will be temporarily storing the text, even though you will not physically see that clipboard.) How do you copy the passage? It's done in two steps. First, you need to "select" (or highlight) the material. If you want to select the entire Web page, that's simple: just press Ctrl-A (check the earlier chart). If you want to select just a part of the page, that's a bit more difficult: you need to click at the beginning of what you want to select, keep the left mouse button down, and move to the end of what you want to select. (That sort of thing is sometimes called "dragging" with the mouse.) Second (after the appropriate part of the page is selected or highlighted), press Ctrl-C to "Copy" the material to the Windows clipboard. Since you can't see the Windows clipboard, you'll have to take it "on faith" for now that the material was actually copied to the Windows clipboard. We'll confirm that in a moment. So, nothing new up to this point.... None of the preceding has changed. Second, we come to the new stuff. You need to start up a text editor. The easiest way for Windows users is probably to use Microsoft Notepad. Click on Start, then on Programs, then on Accessories, and finally on Notepad. Notepad (a text editor) is now running. Now use the "control-VAX" trick. All that means is to press in succession Ctrl-V, Ctrl-A, and Ctrl-X. (Consult the earlier chart to see what these keypress combinations do.) You're done with the new stuff! That is, the text editor (Notepad) has converted the "fancy text" to "plain text." Third, we return to the procedure we followed earlier, and this part is also unchanged. Now go back to your word processor. (To do that, you can most likely simply click on the appropriate button on your "task bar" which most Windows users have at the bottom of their screen.) When you do that, you should then see the "insertion point" blinking in the middle of your word processing document. Press Ctrl-V to "Paste" the text into your document at that point. There it is! And this time there is no "Yes, but...." If you want to copy and paste material from other Web pages into your word processor, just make sure that you briefly stop off in between at Notepad and do a quick Ctrl-V (Paste), Ctrl-A (select All), and Ctrl-X (Cut) before going on. The "control-VAX" trick will change the unwanted "fancy text" to the desired "plain text." (If, of course, you do really want the "fancy text" version in your word processor, then you wouldn't use the "control-VAX" trick.) The phrase "control-VAX" is simply a memory aid to help you remember the sequence Ctrl-V, Ctrl-A, Ctrl-X. It may make it easier for you, even if you don't happen to know that there used to be an old computer called a "VAX" (somewhat "plain" computer compared to modern "fancy" computers). That's it for this part. In the next article in this series we'll be going on to printing out Web pages (or selected portions of Web pages), and you can expect there some more tips and trips that you may find useful. _______________________________________________________________ 3. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS: INFORMATION ON CATI NEWSLETTER Like to know what this is? This is the seventy-first issue of a free newsletter devoted to "Christians And The Internet" ("CATI," pronounced "Katy," but spelled with a "C" and an "I" for "Christians" and the "Internet"). Like to subscribe to this free email newsletter? Just send an email to email@example.com (but be sure to include your name in the note). Like to read past CATI issues and articles (or even search CATI for a particular subject)? 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