"Christians And The Internet" newsletter
CATI, Vol. 3, No. 8:  February 22, 2002.
_______________________________________________________________

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INKLINGS #2: CHARLES WILLIAMS AND J.R.R. TOLKIEN (CONT.)
2. REPRINT: HOW TO COPY, PASTE, & PRINT TEXT FROM WEB PAGES #1
3. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS: INFORMATION ON CATI NEWSLETTER
_______________________________________________________________

The latest revision of this issue of "CATI" can be accessed
online at http://traver.org/cati/archives/cati71.htm.  The
Web page edition makes it especially easy to visit the links.

Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this newsletter is
Copyright (C) 2002 by Barry Traver, All Rights Reserved.  See
the end of this issue for more information on "CATI."
_______________________________________________________________

1. INKLINGS #2: CHARLES WILLIAMS AND J.R.R. TOLKIEN (CONT.)

"The telephone bell was ringing wildly, but without result,
since there was no-one in the room, but the corpse."

Certain novels have rather memorable first lines.  In British
literature, for example, many people would recognize "It was
the best of times, it was the worst of times...." as the start
of A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens.  And many would
also recognize "It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a
single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of
a wife." as marking the beginning of Pride and Prejudice by
Jane Austen.

Similarly in American literature, "Call me Ishmael" would be
recognized by many as the short beginning of a long book, Moby
Dick by Herman Melville.  And probably everyone would know at
once that "You don't know about me without you have read a
book by the name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; but that
ain't no matter." as the beginning of the book The Adventures
of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain.

Well, I've always regarded the sentence at the beginning of
this article as a very memorable beginning of a novel, even
though few people today know of the novel or its author.  The
book is titled War in Heaven, and its author is a man named
Charles Williams, whom TIME Magazine once described as "one
of the most gifted and influential Christian writers England
has produced this [i.e., the twentieth] century."

Charles Williams was a member of an informal group of writers
at Oxford University known as The Inklings, a group that
included other authors who are better known today, viz., C.S.
Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, and Dorothy L. Sayers.

A biography of Dorothy Sayers is titled Such a Strange Lady.
Such she indeed was, and strange as well in their individual
ways were Lewis, Tolkien, and Williams.  All were "Christian"
writers, worthy of being read, but none were what you could
accurately describe as Protestant evangelicals or Reformed
Christians, and each had definite eccentricities, theological
and otherwise.

Although Williams wrote theological works (Such as Descent of
the Dove, dealing with the active work of the Holy Spirit in
the history of the Church), I want to be clear that I do not
recommend him as a theological guide.  In theology, he seems
to represent a strange blend of Christian mysticism that is
uniquely his own.

Like Dorothy Sayers (and T.S. Eliot), Charles Williams also
tried his hand at religious drama.  Like C.S. Lewis and J.R.R.
Tolkien, he also had an interest in Arthurian legend and the
mythical past in British literature.  In short, while in some
ways the Inklings were very different, yet in other ways they
shared many of the same interests.

Williams is best known, however, for his supernatural novels
or (as he himself described them) "metaphysical thrillers,"
such as War in Heaven, whose first sentence I quoted as
the first sentence of this article.  I am not necessarily
recommending that you read his fiction, for "he appeals only
to a special taste" (as one biographer put it).  The closest
parallel I can think of at the moment is C.S. Lewis's That
Hideous Strength, the third book in Lewis's space trilogy.
If you've read and liked that book, you may enjoy reading
Williams's novels.  (Then again you may not.)

Williams wrote seven novels in all:  Place of the Lion, War
in Heaven, All Hallows Eve, Many Dimensions, Shadows of
Ecstasy, The Greater Trumps, and Descent into Hell:

"...unlike much fantasy fiction, they deal not with imaginary
magical worlds but with the irruption of supernatural elements
into everyday life. A legal officer has bequeathed to him the
original set of Tarot cards; the investigation of a murder in
a publisher's office merges with the rediscovery of the Holy
Grail; the ghost of a girl killed in an accident helps thwart
a plot for world domination...."
  http://www.geocities.com/charles_wms_soc/

Since the novels contain references to pagan magic, Christians
should not read the books uncritically, but rather should read
them (if they read them at all) with a questioning, discerning
spirit.

Contrary to TIME's description of Williams as "one of the most
gifted and influential Christian writers England has produced
this century," I think most CATI readers will get more out of
Lewis, Sayers, and Tolkien.  Nevertheless, if you'd like to
know more about this lesser-known member of the Inklings, here
are some relevant Web sites you can check out:

CHARLES WILLIAMS:

The Charles Williams Society
  http://www.geocities.com/charles_wms_soc/

Charles Williams and Inklings Links
  http://www.coinherence.faithweb.com/links.htm

The Web of Exchange
  http://www.coinherence.faithweb.com/

Incidentally, I'm not persuaded that the mere presence of
witches or wizards in a book makes that book non-Christian or
anti-Christian.  There's a witch in C.S. Lewis's The Lion, the
Witch, and the Wardrobe, and Gandalf the Wizard is important
in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.  The Bible itself
makes mention of witches and wizards.  The question is not
whether such things appear in a book, but how the book deals
with them.

And, of course, this is a subject concerning which not all
Christians are agreed.  Even though I taught a course in
"Christian Fantasy" for a number of years on the college
level, I don't think Christians are _required_ to read such
books, and I respect those who have decided for whatever
reasons to spend their time on other pursuits and activities.
Our time on earth is limited, and each of us before God has
the responsibility before God of determining the best use
of his or her time (Phil. 4:8-9; Col. 4:5-6).

Personally, I think that a case can be made that The Hobbit
is among those things which are "true, noble, right, pure,
lovely, admirable, excellent, and praiseworthy."  And there
is a great spiritual struggle currently taking place between
good and evil, a struggle we can also taking place in The
Lord of the Rings in its portrayal of reality.  Yes, I'm a
Tolkien fan, but you're entirely at liberty to disagree with
me concerning my high regard for these books.

Last week I provided an extensive list of Web sites (most of
them secular) relating to J.R.R. Tolkien.  This week I have
some more Tolkien-related Web addresses for you, but all of
these deal primarily with spiritual matters, including in
particular the place of Christianity in the consideration of
The Lord of the Rings and "the Tolkien phenomenon":

J.R.R. TOLKIEN AND THE LORD OF THE RINGS

"Analysis of The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the
    Ring with Addendum" (CAP -- ChildCare Action Project:
    Christian Analysis of Contemporary Culture)
"I am not going to try to debate the claims that Tolkien's
Rings trilogy parallels shards of the Truth shattered from
the Bible. Satan is very good at making the truth into a lie
through the most innocent vehicles and by the least obvious
methods.... The bottom line is that God clearly commands that
witchcraft, sorcery and wizardry are evil.... There is no such
thing as a "good" witch. Not even Wendy.... Comparisons are
being drawn of Frodo to Jesus because of the portrayal of
self-sacrifice.... Gandalf dying in sacrifice of himself for
the lives of others and later being resurrected does not fit
the picture of the Crucifixion and Resurrection but is a
counterfeiting of them."
  http://www.capalert.com/capreports/lordofrings_fellowship.htm

"Biography of J.R.R. Tolkien (1892-1973)" by Ralph C. Wood
    (Leadership U; the author is professor of English at
    Baylor University and a Tolkien expert)
"Indeed, it was largely through Tolkien's influence that
Lewis returned to the church as a confessing Christian.
Largely through his own reading and thinking, Lewis had
abandoned his earlier skepticism and had come to believe,
albeit reluctantly, in God. Yet as a theist, Lewis could
believe in Jesus of Nazareth only as a noble ethical example
whom we are meant to follow: not as the incarnate, crucified
and risen Christ, the very Son of God. These latter notions
are but myths....  In a late-night conversation during the
spring of 1929, ... Tolkien explained to Lewis that myths
are not the dream-wishes that lonely men project onto an
empty universe to cheer themselves up. The great mythic
repetitions of dying and rising gods ... are signs of
something transcendently significant....  However misguided
pagan myths may sometimes be, they point toward the Truth....
Lewis was so convinced of this argument, as Tolkien laid
it out in 1929, that it led to his own re-conversion to
Christian faith."
  http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/wood-biography.html

"Finding God in the Lord of the Rings" by Jim Ware (Plugged
    In; originally published in Breakaway, Focus on the
    Family)
"...[A]t its deepest level, The Lord of the Rings is also a
tale about the sovereignty of God. The God whose love and
power are so great that He is able to work all things together
for good (Romans 8:28). The God who uses even the Enemy's
wicked designs to bring about the ultimate fulfillment of
His perfect plan. Within that plan, even Gollum has an
indispensable part to play in the saving of Middle-earth. As
Tolkien wrote in The Silmarillion, 'Evil may yet be good to
have been...and yet remain evil.' This is a great mystery
and a profound Christian truth."
  http://www.family.org/pplace/pi/lotr/A0018586.cfm

"The Gospel According to J.R.R. Tolkien" (unsigned article
    which originally appeared in the Boston Globe, January
    18, 2002)
"Tim Keller, a conservative Presbyterian minister in
Manhattan, first read The Lord of the Rings when the woman
who is now his wife gave him a copy at Gordon-Conwell
Theological Seminary. Both are now Tolkien fanatics: They
read the trilogy several times a year, are familiar with
everything Tolkien has written, and Tim Keller has learned
Elvish. But Keller stirred up controversy when he tried to
praise Harry Potter in a sermon at his church, arguing that
the books do a good job portraying evil as a force in the
world, portraying the power of the supernatural, and
glorifying the importance of sacrificial love as seen when
Harry Potter's mother dies saving her infant son...."
  http://www.cesnur.org/2002/potter_004.htm

"A Hero by Any Name" by David Learn (from Plugged In, Focus
    on the Family)
"Among many other things, The Lord of the Rings is a book
about what makes a nobody a hero. The book tells primarily
the story of Frodo Baggins, a 50-year-old hobbit who enjoys
a sedentary lifestyle--but who has also inherited the Ring of
the book's title.... In the hands of many writers, the story
would unfold around Frodo's efforts to master the Ring and to
turn its power against [the evil] Sauron. There would be a
tremendous battle, Sauron would be defeated, and Frodo would
become the wise, just and undisputed ruler of Middle-earth.
[But it doesn't happen like that.]
"This odd definition of heroism marks Tolkien's work, and he
in turn drew it from the Bible. Jesus models a different sort
of heroism from the kind we see in popular movies like
Gladiator or even in legends like Robin Hood and King Arthur.
Just as Jesus made an unlikely messiah by being a low-born
carpenter and bypassing chances to gain political power,
Tolkien's heroes break with ... convention.... It is just this
quiet, humble heroism that Tolkien upholds in The Lord of the
Rings."
  http://www.family.org/pplace/pi/lotr/A0018570.cfm

"The Hobbit’s Life: J.R.R. Tolkien and the Joy of Fantasy"
    by Patrick W. Curles
"A popular British magazine recently surveyed its readers to
get their opinions about the best book of all time. Thousands
responded. The landslide winner for the top spot in history:
The Lord of the Rings, by J.R.R. Tolkien.... I, for one,
couldn’t agree more with this assessment.... Tolkien’s work
has had an impact upon me like no other author."  [Patrick
Curles is a pastor of Trinity Presbyterian Church PCA in
Montgomery, Alabama.]
  http://www.goodnewsmag.org/magazine/1JanFeb/jf02hobbit.html

"'Lord of the Rings' at Hollywood Jesus" by Andrew Carega
    (author of Evangelism: Sharing the Gospel in Cyberspace
    and webmaster of e-vangelism.com, a Web site devoted to
    "Internet evangelism")
"One insightful site, from a spiritual perspective, is 'Lord
of the Rings at Hollywood Jesus'. As part of David Bruce's
content-rich Hollywood Jesus site, this LotR site provides an
in-depth look at the spiritual messages in Tolkien's work,
along with movie clips, news about the movie, great images
from the movie and other, more classic LotR artwork, and an
area for discussion about the movie and the books.... We ...
are pleased to designate 'Lord of the Rings at Hollywood
Jesus' as our E-vangelism Site of the Week...."
  http://www.e-vangelism.com/spotlight/apr1601.html

"'Lord of the Rings'" Box Office Fueled by Christian
    Perspective" by Patrick Goodenough (FamilyResources.net)
"Billed as one of the biggest movie events in years, the
first in the "Lord of the Rings" trilogy...has become a major
talking point among Christians.... 'As with Harry Potter, many
parents are wondering whether…"Lord of the Rings," with all of
its violence, monsters, and even some magic, is appropriate
for them and/or their children,' says Canada's pro-life and
pro-family Lifesite. 'The movie…is closely based on the J.R.R.
Tolkien three-part novel of the same title,' it says. 'What
is not so well known is that the book, and its epic struggles
between good and evil, was written with a strong Catholic
Christian perspective."
  http://www.familyresources.net/lordoftherings.html

"The Lord of the Rings: Fellowship of the Ring: A Hollywood
    Jesus Movie Review" by Greg Wright
Greg Wright's review is just one item to be found in this
amazing section of David Bruce's Hollywood Jesus Web site,
a site which deals with the interaction of Christianity and
contemporary movies.  As elsewhere on Hollywood Jesus, you
will be struck by the visuals (it may take a while for the
images to load in with a slower modem, but it's worth the
wait!), but on the same page as the review you'll find
links to much more material of interest.  It's no wonder
that David Bruce's treatment of "LotR" was given a special
award by the e-vangelism Web site.  Check it out!
  http://www.hollywoodjesus.com/lord_of_the_rings.htm

"'Lord of the Rings' has Ring of the Christian Lord" by Jeff
    Robinson (Crossroad.com)
"Near the end of his life, J.R.R. Tolkien ... received a
letter from a young girl posing a question concerning the
chief end of man. Tolkien ... provided the youngster an
answer that lends insight into the worldview of the realm in
which he casts his fantasy novels. 'It may be said that the
purpose of life for any one of us is to increase according to
our capacity, our knowledge of God by all the means we have and
to be moved by it to praise and [give] thanks,' he wrote. '[To
God we must say,] "We praise you, we call you holy, we worship
you, we proclaim your glory, we thank you for the greatness of
your splendor."'
  http://news.crosswalk.com/partner/Article_Display_Page/0,,PTID74088%7CCHID194343%7CCIID1109734,00.html

"Lord of the Rings: Online Christian Resources"
    (GospelCom.Net)
"Browse through these LotR-related articles, commentaries, and
reviews at Gospelcom.net. Find out what other Christians have
to say about the man, the books, and now the movie!"
  http://www.gospelcom.net/features/lotr/

"The Marketing of Middle Earth" by Michael S. Beates (an
    article which originally appeared in the Dallas/Fort
    Worth Star-Telegram)
"But one thing in Middle Earth was simple: There were things
good, true and beautiful; and there were things wicked,
malicious and ugly. Right and wrong could not be confused....
In Tolkien's day, absolutes were clear, and this came through
in his characters (by the way, satisfyingly depicted, in my
opinion, in Peter Jackson's film adaptation). Tolkien's good
characters display virtues like humility, courage and
self-sacrifice.... Tolkien meant to draw readers to the good
and the true. But we are supposed to be repulsed by the
ugliness and unmitigated evil of others. But ... much has
changed since Tolkien first wrote and I first read...."
[Michael Beates is dean of students at Reformed Theological
Seminary in Orlando, Florida.]
  http://www.dfw.com/mld/startelegram/news/editorial/2496142.htm

"Powerful Rings: Movie version of Tolkien's book speaks to
    today's culture" by Gene Edward Veith (World Magazine)
"Though the movie goes on for nearly three hours--twice the
length of a typical Hollywood movie--the narration moves so
quickly that one wishes it would linger for awhile. Yes, it
has some very dark images, but recognizing the difference
between darkness and light is exactly what our culture needs."
  http://www.worldmag.com/world/issue/01-12-02/cultural_1.asp

"Still Ringing True: Reading The Lord of the Rings--this time
    as an adult--remains an overwhelming experience" by Gene
    Edward Veith (World Magazine)
"'Here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold
iron; here is a book that will break your heart.' That blurb
on the back cover of the old Ballantine edition of The Lord of
the Rings captured exactly the way I felt, as a 14-year-old
having just finished the last book of Tolkien's trilogy....
Then I was 14; now I am 50. Then I was just waking up to a
love of reading; now I am an English professor, a professional
reader.... Reading it again after all those years, I ... know
I understood it better this time--seeing it not as just a
children's book but as a work that raises issues only adults
can fully grasp--and I can say that it was just as good and
maybe better the second time around."
  http://www.worldmag.com/world/issue/12-08-01/national_1.asp

"Tapping Tolkien to Teach Teens" by Kurt Bruner (as published
    in Plugged In, Focus on the Family)
"The Lord of the Rings is a tale of redemption in which the
main characters overcome cowardly self-preservation to model
heroic self-sacrifice. Their bravery mirrors the greatest
heroic rescue of all time, when Christ 'humbled himself and
became obedient to death-even death on a cross.'"
  http://www.family.org/pplace/pi/lotr/A0018574.cfm

"Tolkien and The Lord of the Rings" by David Cloud (Way of
    Life Literature, a Fundamental Baptist ministry)
The following brief quotation is in accordance with the "fair
use" provision of U.S. Copyright Law, and the entire article
can be read at the Web address cited:  "Is the Lord of the
Rings harmless fantasy or perhaps even a wholesome Christian
allegory? We think not. I read The Hobbit and ... The Lord of
the Rings in 1971.... I was...at the time...very antagonistic
to the Christian faith; and had the books contained even a
hint of Bible truth, I can assure you that I would not have
read them at that particular point in my life. Though I have
forgotten many of the details of the books, I can recall very
vividly that they are filled with occultic imagery...."  (Mr.
Cloud apparently does not like to be partially quoted, but
the law does permit such quotation and you can go to his Web
site and read more, if you wish.)
  http://www.wayoflife.org/fbns/tolkien-lordoftherings.html

"Tolkien's Impact in Literature and Life" by Patrick W.
    Curles
[This is the original PCANews.Com version of the essay "The
Hobbit's Life" essay mentioned elsewhere on this list.  Again,
Patrick Curles is a pastor in the PCA, i.e., the Presbyterian
Church in America.]
  http://www.christianity.com/partner/Article_Display_Page/0,,PTID23682%7CCHID125099%7CCIID683300,00.html

Tolkien's Ordinary Virtues: Exploring the Spiritual Themes
    of The Lord of the Rings by Mark Eddy Smith
No, you won't find this InterVarsity Press book online, but
you can download excerpts as a PDF file as well as read a
description of the book (a book which, by the way, I have not
yet seen personally).  Here are comments from the publisher:
"Echoing Tolkien's views on the workings of story, [Mark Eddy
Smith] concludes that 'while it can never supplant the Bible,
[The Lord of the Rings] may do its part to supplement it, so
that we see again, from a different perspective, the same
essential and eternal truths.' Here then, is a book that
mines the gold from Middle-earth, both for long-time fans
and for those just getting acquainted with Tolkien and his
universe."
  http://www.gospelcom.net/cgi-ivpress/book.pl/code=2312

"Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings: A Christian Classic
    Revisited" by Ralph C. Wood (Leadership U)
"Dr. Ralph Wood, Professor of English at Baylor University, is
a Tolkien expert and has studied Christian literary classics
and the Inklings.... He taught for 26 years at Wake Forest
University, where he won awards for distinguished teaching."
  http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/wood-classic.html

"Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings: A Book for Our Time of
  Terror" by Ralph C. Wood (Leadership U)
"[We note] Tolkien's unaccountable popularity, and thus the
charge that he appeals only to readers who desire to escape
from reality. The contrary truth is that the Rings-epic is
indeed an escape--from the prison of spiritual death and
unprecedented evil, and thus an escape into the freedom and
joy of spiritual life and unprecedented good."
  http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/wood-rings.html

"Tolkien's Theology of the Ring: Lord of the Rings -- A
    Christian Classic?" by Charles Henderson
    (christianity.about.com)
"To begin, the Rings trilogy is profoundly Christian. Tolkien
and his colleague C. S. Lewis ... often discussed the ways in
which the Christian faith could be expressed in alternative
shapes and forms. They believed that one can communicate the
content of Christianity without merely repeating Bible verses,
or works lifted from traditional creeds or confessions. And
they both set out to create a new literature that would speak
to traditional Christians as well as to readers who were
alienated from Christianity. Tolkien in particular wanted to
create a literature in which the faith was implied rather
than imposed, and suggested rather than preached."
  http://christianity.about.com/library/weekly/aa123001.htm

"Will Fantasy Fans Grab the Ring?" by Craig Bird (FaithWorks)
"Yet at its heart, The Lord of the Rings -- according to
Tolkien himself and his closest associates -- is grounded
in an unstinting Christian conviction that, at the end of
time, God will finally and forever defeat evil. The soul of
Tolkien’s story is anchored in the truth of the incarnation
and the resurrection of Jesus Christ."
  http://www.faithworks.com/archives/fantasy_fans_ring.htm
_______________________________________________________________

2. REPRINT: HOW TO COPY, PASTE, & PRINT TEXT FROM WEB PAGES #1

[This article is being reprinted with some minor updating from
CATI, Vol. 2, No. 15.  One reason I'm reprinting it is that --
as in the case of my article(s) on downloading, unzipping, and
installing files from the Internet -- for some reason I never
followed through with a "#2," an omission I hope to rectify in
the next issue.]

One of the most useful skills related to the World Wide Web is
knowing how to copy, paste, and print text from a Web page.
If you're a novice, this series of CATI articles will teach
you how to do that.  Even if you consider yourself an expert
in this area, I think you'll find here some new and useful
tips that you will not find elsewhere.

When I prepare to preach, I rarely write down the full text of
what I intend to say -- that is, my own personal comments on
the Biblical text -- but I do ordinarily write down the full
text of the Biblical text itself that I intend to quote, since
I want to be sure that I quote accurately.  Recently, I have
found the Bible Gateway Web site to be a very helpful aid to
accomplishing that:

Bible Gateway
  http://bible.gospelcom.net/

Since I preach at different churches and since they often have
different "standard" translations in the pews, I like to quote
accurately the translation with which the congregation is most
familiar, whether it be KJV, NASB, NIV, or NKJV.  With Bible
Gateway, this is a relatively simple task to accomplish.

Before we get into the specifics of how to copy, paste, and
print text from a Web page, I should perhaps say something
about the matter of copyright.  My comments should not be
taken as legal advice, but simply as common-sense comments
on questions of ethics.

There is a lot of worthwhile text on the Web you can freely
access, including many books that are now public domain rather
than being currently protected by copyright.  Here are some
resources for finding books and articles that you can access
online:

GENERAL BOOKS AND ARTICLES:

Alex Catalogue of Electronic Texts
  http://www.infomotions.com/alex/

Bartleby.com
  http://www.bartleby.com/

bibliomania
  http://www.bibliomania.com/

BUBL LINK: Book and Text Collections
  http://www.bubl.ac.uk/link/types/books.htm

Free Library of Classics
  http://www.information-resources.com/Library/library.html

Internet Public Library: Online Texts Collection
  http://www.ipl.org/reading/books/

On-Line Books Page
  http://digital.library.upenn.edu/books/

Project Gutenberg
  http://promo.net/pg/

CHRISTIAN BOOKS AND ARTICLES:

Christian Classics Ethereal Library
  http://www.ccel.org/

Fire and Ice: Puritan and Reformed Writings
  http://www.puritansermons.com/toc.htm

Guide to Christian Literature on the Internet
  http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/christian-books.html

Hall of Church History (Phil Johnson)
  http://www.gty.org/~phil/hall.htm

I.C.E. Free Books
  http://freebooks.entrewave.com/freebooks/sidefrm3.htm

Legacy: Reformed & Puritan Christian Literature
  http://www.iserv.net/~mrbill/Legacy.html

Rose Tree Press
  http://www.rosetree.com/

Some of these sites are more helpful than others, and you
should (as always on the Web) exercise Christian discretion.
For more details on each site, see the following article that
was previously published in CATI:

Buying Books And/Or Reading Books on the Web
  http://traver.org/cati/archives/cati46.htm#1

The Bible says, "Thou shalt not steal."  This does not cause
a problem for textual material that is in the public domain,
because that material belongs to you, since you are part of
"the public."  But what about copyrighted works, books and
articles that are legally owned by someone else?  How are
you to deal with such text?

First, as in the case of anything owned by someone else,
you can do with someone else's property whatever the owner
of that property has given you permission to do, without
your violating the Biblical commandment against stealing.
Second, certain use may be made legally and ethically of
copyrighted material even without the direct permission of
the copyright owner.

By the way, I am not that familiar with copyright laws in
other countries, but presumably they would be similar to U.S.
copyright law.  But I am not a lawyer and do not pretend to
be qualified to offer legal advice concerning copyright law.
The best that I can do is to attempt to suggest some ethical
guidelines related to some of the issues involved.

First, legally and morally you can do with someone else's
property whatever the owner of that property has given you
permission to do.  Sometimes the policy is stated explicitly
at the site where the copyrighted material is found.  For
example, here is what Bible Gateway has to say concerning the
Scripture on their site:

"These Scriptures may be downloaded and saved locally on
a computer for personal, non-commercial use only.  These
Scriptures may be re-printed for non-commercial use.  Clearly,
you are encouraged to use the Bible for personal use, and to
quote from it.  The goal of the copyright is to prevent others
from profiting from the work that IBS, Nelson, or other
translators have done."
  http://bible.gospelcom.net/bg/bible_faq.html#24

Bible Gateway also offers these comments:

"Most of the Bibles provided here on the Bible Gateway are
made available by the generosity of the publishers....  You
are allowed to copy some Biblical material from the online
Bibles, as long as you follow the copyright restrictions set
forth by the publishers."
  http://bible.gospelcom.net/bg/bible_faq.html#24

Some of the publishers may provide more specific guidelines,
such as the International Bible Society (publishers of the
New International Version or NIV):

"The NIV may be quoted in any form (written, visual,
electronic or audio) up to and inclusive of five hundred
(500) verses without the express written permission of the
publisher, providing the verses quoted do not amount to a
complete book of the Bible nor do the verses quoted account
for more than 25 percent (25%) or more of the total text of
the work in which they are quoted."
  http://www.gospelcom.net/ibs/bibles/use.html

Second, certain use may be made legally and ethically of
copyrighted material even without the direct permission of
the copyright owner.  Sometimes copyright owners may make
claims which, if taken literally, are not supported by U.S.
copyright law.  For example, the following claim is made at
the Web site of David W. Cloud, a "Fundamental Baptist":

"This information may not be placed on other web sites or
BBS sites."
  http://www.wayoflife.org/fbns/fbns-index/gospfbns.htm

That is the claim, but it's not supported by U.S. copyright
law.  A particular expression or wording of information or
ideas may be protected, but ...

"Ideas and information, however, are not protected by
copyright."
  http://www.umich.edu/~bhl/bhl/refhome/copyrt.htm

More specifically,

"Copyright protects the way in which information is presented,
it does not protect facts, ideas or information. Taking
information from another web site and expressing it in your
own words does not infringe copyright."
  http://learningcommons.senecacollege.ca/learningcommons/Library/Copyright/electronicResources.html

In addition, you should know that even the protection of the
way in which information is presented is not absolute.  You
may quote a limited amount of material in certain situations
and for certain purposes according to the "fair use" provision
of U.S. copyright law (Title 17, United States Code, Section
107):

"Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A,
the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by
reproduction in copies ..., for purposes such as criticism,
comment, news reporting, teaching..., scholarship, or
research, is not an infringement of copyright.  In determining
whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a
fair use the factors to be considered shall include (1) the
purpose and character of the use, including whether such use
is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational
purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the
amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to
the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use
upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted
work."
  http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.html

For another example of a claim that is not supported by U.s.
copyright law, let's again look at David W. Cloud's Web
site.  On that site the following claim is made in the
"informational header" for his article "I Reject TULIP
Theology" and elsewhere:

"These articles cannot be stored on BBS or Internet sites and
cannot be sold or placed by themselves or with other material
in any electronic format for sale, but may be distributed for
free by e-mail or by print. They must be left intact and
nothing removed or changed, including these informational
headers."
  http://www.wayoflife.org/fbns/ireject.htm

But the second sentence--if taken literally--is contrary to
the "fair use" provision of U.S. copyright law, which does
permit the limited quotation of copyrighted works for, say,
the purpose of criticism and critique.

In the "I Reject TULIP Theology" article on David W. Cloud's
Web site just mentioned, the following statements are made:

"The Westminster Confession reflected John Calvin's system
of predestinarian theology which has been summarized in
five points by the acronym of TULIP: Total depravity of man,
meaning man is incapable of responding to the Gospel;
Unconditional election, meaning God chooses which men will
be saved and which men will be lost; Limited atonement,
meaning Christ died only for those who will be saved;
Irresistible grace, meaning the sinner cannot resist God's
call to salvation; and Perseverance of the saints, meaning
those who are saved will hold out faithful to the end.  We
must hasten to say that the Westminster Confession's teaching
in these areas is contrary to the plain statements of the
Word of God."
  http://www.wayoflife.org/fbns/ireject.htm

Now, I personally believe that the Westminster Confession of
Faith accurately states the teaching of Scripture in these
areas.  Here are some places where you can find support for
"TULIP theology" (the theology set forth in the Canons of
the Synod of Dordt, part of the doctrinal standards of many
churches in the Reformed tradition and greatly respected by
many Presbyterian churches as well):

A Puritan's Mind: T.U.L.I.P.
  http://www.apuritansmind.com/TULIP/TULIP.htm

Coram Deo TULIP Page
  http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Cyprus/1548/TULIP.html

The Five Points of Calvinism (CRTA site)
(Center for Reformed Theology and Apologetics)
  http://www.reformed.org/calvinism/

The Five Points of Calvinism (by W.J. Seaton)
  http://www.graceonlinelibrary.org/calvinism/full.asp?ID=224

T.U.L.I.P., Or The Five Points of Calvinism
  http://www.bethelpca.org/5-points.htm

Why the Name TULIP?
  http://www.tulip.org/tulip.html

But that's not my main point here.  My point is that the
fair use provision of U.S. copyright law allows me to quote
David W. Cloud's position and arguments and to respond to
them, if I so choose, without reproducing his articles in
their entirety (including "informational headers").

Without the fair use provision, people could publish (or post
on a Web site) any nonsense they desired, and people who may
hold a different position would be unfairly restricted in
their opportunity to interact and respond.  Actually, the
fair use provision safeguards both sides.  If I happen to
oppose someone on a particular issue, I should be able to
quote him out of fairness to him, so that I may be able to
represent his opinion accurately and directly rather than
my readers having to rely on my attempts at paraphrase.

Incidentally, there is some worthwhile reading on David W.
Cloud's Web site (and even when I disagree with his articles,
they often make for interesting reading), so I do not intend
this article to be a put-down of him or his ministry, even
though I seriously disagree with him on certain issues.  Such
disagreement is to be expected, since he is a "Fundamental
Baptist," while I am a conservative Presbyterian.  The reason
for mentioning him here is mainly to indicate that in certain
defined situations, it is fair to quote copyrighted material
even when the copyright owner (David W. Cloud or whoever) may
not explicitly give permission to do so.

Let's move on to the matter of copying and pasting text from
a Web page.  Future articles will include other "tips and
tricks," but in this article I'll concentrate on just one in
particular, what I call the "control-VAX" trick.  That may not
mean anything right now, but this useful technique should be
clear by the end of this article.

By the way, this article assumes, perhaps unfairly, that you
are using Microsoft Windows.  If you are using a different
operating system, some of the following may not apply.

First, we need to define some terms.  We need to distinguish
between what I call "plain text" and what I call "fancy text."
"Plain text" is the text that you can create using an ordinary
typewriter.  It's simply what you get by pressing typewriter
keys:  letters, numerals, punctuation, spaces, and a limited
number of symbols (mostly those you get by pressing the shift
key and the number keys at the top of the keyboard).

"Fancy text," however, is lots more.  Here's where we get to
see the "extras," things like different fonts (and different
font sizes), bold, italics, underlining, tables, "bullets,"
and even pictures!  On the computer you can create "plain
text" using, say, a normal text editor such as Microsoft
Notepad, but to create "fancy text" you need to use a word
processor like WordPerfect or Microsoft Word (or at least
a program like Microsoft WordPad, which is like a stripped
down word processor).

Second, we need to be familiar with some frequently-used
Windows "shortcuts."  For many (or most?) Windows programs,
you do not have to use the top menu or even use a button
toolbar to do common tasks like "copy" and "paste."  You
can instead use certain "combination keystrokes," where
you press down the "Control" key (usually labeled "Ctrl"),
press an appropriate letter key (such as "A," "C", "V,"
or "X"), and let up both keys.

Here's a list of some common keystroke-combination shortcuts,
used in many or most Windows programs:

     Ctrl-A - select All
     Ctrl-C - Copy
     Ctrl-X - Cut
     Ctrl-V - Paste
     Ctrl-O - Open
     Ctrl-S - Save
     Ctrl-P - Print

For some of these, the first letter of the command suggests
the shortcut (e.g., Copy, Open, Save, Print, and even select
All).  A memory aid for Cut (Ctrl-X) is that the letter "X"
looks like a pair of scissors.  And a memory aid for Paste
is that the letter "V" looks a bit like the proofreading
symbol sometimes used to indicate an insertion.

That's the background you need to know at this point.  Now
you are ready to do some copying and pasting.  For the sake
of providing a specific example (for which you will be
given step-by-step directions), let's assume that you are
preparing a sermon or Sunday school lesson.  Let's further
assume that you like to use larger print for your notes to
make for easier reading.

Start up your favorite word processor (WordPerfect, Microsoft
Word, or whatever), and set the font point size to 16.  (For
MS-Word, choose Format and then Font, change the Size to 16,
and then click on OK.)  Type in "Note that we are saved by
grace and not by works:", press the Enter key a few times,
type in "Note also that although we are not saved by works,
we are saved to do good works.", and use the left arrow key
to position the cursor (or "insertion point") somewhere in
between those two statements.  Minimize your word processor.
(One way to do this is to click on the picture (or "icon")
in the top-left corner of your word processor and choose
Minimize.)

Now connect to the Internet and go to the following Web
site:

Bible Gateway
  http://bible.gospelcom.net/

On the left side of the page, click the circle in front of
your favorite translation, type "Eph. 2:8-10" (without the
quotation marks) in the box in front of "Lookup," and click
on "Lookup."  That should take you to a new Web page where
you will see the Scripture passage on the screen.  At this
point you want to copy the passage to the Windows clipboard.
(Don't be afraid of the terminology; the Windows clipboard
is simply a temporary storage place or "cubbyhole" where
you will be temporarily storing the text, even though you
will not physically see that clipboard.)

How do you copy the passage?  It's done in two steps.  First,
you need to "select" (or highlight) the material.  If you want
to select the entire Web page, that's simple:  just press
Ctrl-A (check the earlier chart).  If you want to select just
a part of the page, that's a bit more difficult:  you need to
click at the beginning of what you want to select, keep the
left mouse button down, and move to the end of what you want
to select.  (That sort of thing is sometimes called "dragging"
with the mouse.)  Second (after the appropriate part of the
page is selected or highlighted), press Ctrl-C to "Copy" the
material to the Windows clipboard.

Since you can't see the Windows clipboard, you'll have to
take it "on faith" for now that the material was actually
copied to the Windows clipboard.  We'll confirm that in a
moment.

Now go back to your word processor.  (To do that, you can
most likely simply click on the appropriate button on your
"task bar" which most Windows users have at the bottom of
their screen.)  When you do that, you should then see the
"insertion point" blinking in the middle of your word
processing document.  Press Ctrl-V to "Paste" the text
into your document at that point.  There it is!

"Yes, but....," you may be saying.  The selected text did
arrive safely (so that you can indeed be sure that you are
accurately quoting Scripture in your sermon or Sunday School
lesson), but what was pasted was the "fancy" stuff you saw
on the Web page, whereas what you wanted was the "plain"
text, text that would, for example, not be a different size
from what you already typed in your document.

When you want to copy and paste text, what you most often
want is "plain text," not "fancy text."  Unfortunately,
when you go directly from the Web page to your word
processor, what you get is "fancy text," not "plain text."
Here is where we can use the "control-VAX" trick that I
mentioned earlier.

So we're going to insert a step in the middle to change
"fancy text" to "plain text."  Specifically, we will be
using "control-VAX" with a text editor.  Instead of
going directly from the Web page to the word processor,
we will be going from the Web page to a text editor to
the word processor (and the text editor will change the
"fancy text" to "plain text").

It's a lot simpler than it sounds, and the procedure will
become almost automatic, once you've done it once or
twice using the step-by-step directions given here.  So
please hang in there, because we're going through the
entire process again (you were able to handle it before,
right?), but we'll insert the text editor trick (using
"control-VAX" as will be explained in a moment) in order
to convert that "fancy text" to "plain text."

Let's do it again!  First, the first part of the process
hasn't changed:

Start up your favorite word processor (WordPerfect, Microsoft
Word, or whatever), and set the font point size to 16.  (For
MS-Word, choose Format and then Font, change the Size to 16,
and then click on OK.)  Type in "Note that we are saved by
grace and not by works:", press the Enter key a few times,
type in "Note also that although we are not saved by works,
we are saved to do good works.", and use the left arrow key
to position the cursor (or "insertion point") somewhere in
between those two statements.  Minimize your word processor.
(One way to do this is to click on the picture (or "icon")
in the top-left corner of your word processor and choose
Minimize.)

Now connect to the Internet and go to the following Web
site:

Bible Gateway
  http://bible.gospelcom.net/

On the left side of the page, click the circle in front of
your favorite translation, type "Eph. 2:8-10" (without the
quotation marks) in the box in front of "Lookup," and click
on "Lookup."  That should take you to a new Web page where
you will see the Scripture passage on the screen.  At this
point you want to copy the passage to the Windows clipboard.
(Don't be afraid of the terminology; the Windows clipboard
is simply a temporary storage place or "cubbyhole" where
you will be temporarily storing the text, even though you
will not physically see that clipboard.)

How do you copy the passage?  It's done in two steps.  First,
you need to "select" (or highlight) the material.  If you want
to select the entire Web page, that's simple:  just press
Ctrl-A (check the earlier chart).  If you want to select just
a part of the page, that's a bit more difficult:  you need to
click at the beginning of what you want to select, keep the
left mouse button down, and move to the end of what you want
to select.  (That sort of thing is sometimes called "dragging"
with the mouse.)  Second (after the appropriate part of the
page is selected or highlighted), press Ctrl-C to "Copy" the
material to the Windows clipboard.

Since you can't see the Windows clipboard, you'll have to
take it "on faith" for now that the material was actually
copied to the Windows clipboard.  We'll confirm that in a
moment.

So, nothing new up to this point....

None of the preceding has changed.  Second, we come to the
new stuff.  You need to start up a text editor.  The easiest
way for Windows users is probably to use Microsoft Notepad.
Click on Start, then on Programs, then on Accessories, and
finally on Notepad.  Notepad (a text editor) is now running.
Now use the "control-VAX" trick.  All that means is to
press in succession Ctrl-V, Ctrl-A, and Ctrl-X.  (Consult
the earlier chart to see what these keypress combinations
do.)  You're done with the new stuff!  That is, the text
editor (Notepad) has converted the "fancy text" to "plain
text."

Third, we return to the procedure we followed earlier,
and this part is also unchanged.

Now go back to your word processor.  (To do that, you can
most likely simply click on the appropriate button on your
"task bar" which most Windows users have at the bottom of
their screen.)  When you do that, you should then see the
"insertion point" blinking in the middle of your word
processing document.  Press Ctrl-V to "Paste" the text
into your document at that point.  There it is!

And this time there is no "Yes, but...."

If you want to copy and paste material from other Web pages
into your word processor, just make sure that you briefly
stop off in between at Notepad and do a quick Ctrl-V (Paste),
Ctrl-A (select All), and Ctrl-X (Cut) before going on.  The
"control-VAX" trick will change the unwanted "fancy text" to
the desired "plain text."  (If, of course, you do really want
the "fancy text" version in your word processor, then you
wouldn't use the "control-VAX" trick.)

The phrase "control-VAX" is simply a memory aid to help you
remember the sequence Ctrl-V, Ctrl-A, Ctrl-X.  It may make
it easier for you, even if you don't happen to know that
there used to be an old computer called a "VAX" (somewhat
"plain" computer compared to modern "fancy" computers).

That's it for this part.  In the next article in this series
we'll be going on to printing out Web pages (or selected
portions of Web pages), and you can expect there some more
tips and trips that you may find useful.
_______________________________________________________________

3. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS: INFORMATION ON CATI NEWSLETTER

Like to know what this is?  This is the seventy-first issue
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("CATI," pronounced "Katy," but spelled with a "C" and an "I"
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Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this newsletter is
Copyright (C) 2002 by Barry Traver, All Rights Reserved.