"Christians And The Internet" newsletter CATI, Vol. 4, No. 1: February 7, 2003 _______________________________________________________________ TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. LETTER FROM THE EDITOR, WITH THE USUAL APOLOGIES... 2. BIBLICAL CATECHIZING & CHRISTIAN CATECHISMS 3. ADD STREAMING AUDIO TO YOUR PERSONAL OR CHURCH WEB SITE 4. GENEVA & KING JAMES: WHICH BIBLE(S) CAN YOU TRUST? 5. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS NEWSLETTER _______________________________________________________________ The latest revision of this issue of "CATI" can be accessed online at http://traver.org/cati/archives/cati78.htm. The Web page edition makes it especially easy to visit the links. Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this newsletter is Copyright (C) 2003 by Barry Traver, All Rights Reserved. See the end of this issue for more information on "CATI." _______________________________________________________________ 1. LETTER FROM THE EDITOR, WITH THE USUAL APOLOGIES... As most people know, "CATI," a free e-mail newsletter devoted to "Christians And The Internet," is published on a somewhat irregular schedule. I apologize for that. The newsletter is essentially a one-person accomplishment, so if there are extra demands on my schedule, that may put "CATI" behind schedule. I appreciate your patience in this situation. I still hope to return to weekly publication (which was the normal schedule for much of 2000, when I started publishing "CATI"), but my life has been extra busy recently, especially at the end of 2002 and the beginning of 2003. Most of the additional demands have been pleasurable ones, such as increased opportunities to preach at various area churches and to do one-on-one tutoring as needed. I'm happy to have a new computer here (and finally to have cable access to the Internet), but moving to Windows XP has meant the need to move to (and learn) new software as well (e.g., a different program to mail out "CATI"). Incidentally, some of you know that I've also had some health issues which have taken some of my time, and you have been so kind as to remember me in your prayers. There appears to be some real encouragement in that area. For those who qualify for it, something called "deep-brain stimulation" surgery may have dramatic (near-miraculous) effects in its alleviation of the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (which is what I have, along with the Pope, Billy Graham, Michael J. Fox, and Janet Reno, so I'm certainly in famous or infamous company in my affliction). I've been approved for the "D.B.S." surgery, and the surgery is likely to take place in early June of 2003. By the way, the particular procedure I'm scheduled to have is fairly new: it was only approved by the FDA in January 2002 as a proven form of medical treatment; before that time, it was considered to be exploratory or experimental. As in all surgery, some risk is involved, but this operation is less invasive than other forms of such surgery, and the records show a high rate of success. In addition to reading a lot about the operation (which is similar to getting a pacemaker, except that it's for the brain rather than the heart), I've talked with a number of people who have had the surgery, and a typical report (especially from those who had been in late-stage Parkinson's) is, "It gave me my life back again." There is, of course, not any guarantee that it will work out equally well for me (at best the best we can speak of his "human probability"), but I have a better guarantee, whatever the results of the surgery: it is certain that "in all things God works for the good of those who love Him, who have been called according to His purpose" (Romans 8:28). If you are curious to learn more about D.B.S. surgery (and you are not squeamish), here's where you can find on the Web a video that not only explains the surgery, but also shows it to you: Re-broadcast of actual D.B.S. surgery http://www.slp3d.com/wake_hosp/prewebcast/broadcast.html As we see the complexity of the human body, we see that it is indeed true that we are "fearfully and wonderfully made" (Psalm 139:14). Even as fallen creatures, we continue to display the glory of the Creator who made us, even as likewise "the heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of His hands" (Psalm 19:1). _______________________________________________________________ 2. BIBLICAL CATECHIZING & CHRISTIAN CATECHISMS The World Wide Web contains a lot of very helpful material on "catechizing" and "catechisms," but to many Christians today, such terms are largely unfamiliar. On the other hand, some other Christians are convinced that the future well-being of the Church may be dependent upon our rediscovering the value of such things. The purpose of this article is (1) to describe what is meant by "catechizing" and "catechisms" (including explaining their importance to the health of the Church today) and (2) to indicate where some of the helpful material on the subject may be found. Effective teaching ordinarily involves interaction between teacher and student. Asking questions, listening to answers, being asked questions, providing answers: this is normally the way we learn. Well, what we know today aabout education could be seen not only in Biblical times (in both Old and New Testament), but also in the history of the Church (especically in the Reformation era). Catechizing is simply a more formal, more structured way of using this question-and-answer method of education. The use of questions and answers is a well-established and honored technique for instruction. Here, for example, is an important example from the Old Testament: A foundational Old Testament passage is Deuteronomy 6, a passage often familiar to Jew and Gentile alike. First you have what Jews sometimes call the "shema" (from the Hebrew word for "hear"). Then comes the statement that Jesus Christ referred to as "the first and great commandment." Then there is emphasis on the fact that there are certain things we ought to discuss around the clock and know by heart: "Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one. Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength. These commandments that I give you today are to be upon your hearts. Impress them on your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up" (Deut. 6:4-7, NIV). Later in this chapter, we see how the question-and-answer approach is used ("when your son asks, tell him") in religious instruction: "In the future, when your son asks you, 'What is the meaning of the stipulations, decrees and laws the LORD our God has commanded you?' tell him: 'We were slaves of Pharaoh in Egypt, but the LORD brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand. Before our eyes the LORD sent miraculous signs and wonders--great and terrible-upon Egypt and Pharaoh and his whole household. But he brought us out from there to bring us in and give us the land that he promised on oath to our forefathers. The LORD commanded us to obey all these decrees and to fear the LORD our God, so that we might always prosper and be kept alive, as is the case today...'" (Deut. 6:20-24, NIV). Note that we have here a command: "...when your son asks you [and he assuredly will ask!], ... tell him" the answer to his question!- Although other educational methods are also approved (e.g., see Deut. 6:8-9 on the use of memory aids), interaction between teacher and student in the form of questions asked and answers given appears to be fundamental to instruction in the Bible. In the New Testament as well, we see questions asked and answers given. A notable example is that of Jesus at the age of twelve in the temple courts: "[Joseph and Mary] found him in the temple courts, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions. Everyone who heard him was amazed at his understanding and his answers.... And Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men" (Luke 2:45-46, 52, NIV). Note that Jesus asked other people questions and also gave answers to questions other people asked him. He used this approach during His three-year ministry as an adult, but be sure to note that He did this not only as an adult Teacher, but also (as in the passage before us) as a boy still growing in wisdom. We can see from this that the question-and-answer approach can be used legitimately in both directions: the student can ask the teacher questions (with the teacher giving the answers) or the teacher can ask the student questions (with the student giving the answers). (Christ's situation was unique, however, in that even while He was a student, "growing in wisdom," he was even then also a Master Teacher.) Such instruction is appropriate not only in the covenant home (i.e., a home where there is a believing parent) and in the gathering together of God's people (as the assembling of the larger family of God), but also in evangelism, where questions and answers are also very appropriate for instruction in the things of God: "Then Philip ran up to the chariot and heard the man reading Isaiah the prophet. 'Do you understand what you are reading?' Philip asked. 'How can I,' he said, 'unless someone explains it to me?' So he invited Philip to come up and sit with him.... The eunuch asked Philip, 'Tell me, please, who is the prophet talking about, himself or someone else?' Then Philip began with that very passage of Scripture and told him the good news about Jesus." (See also question-and-answer in 1 Peter 3:15, where we are told to "be prepared to give an answer.") We get our words "catechism" and "catechizing" from the Greek word "catecheo," which means "to instruct." An example is Luke 1:4: "...so that you may know the certainty of the things you have been taught" (or "the things in which you have been instructed") (Luke 1:4, NIV). (See also "[Apollos] had been instructed in the of the Lord...," Acts 18:25, NIV.) In such instruction, questions-and-answers often played a rather important role. We move from a quick look at Biblical catechizing on to Christian catechisms. There are other ways besides questions-and-answers to "bring [your children] up in the training and instruction of the Lord..." (Eph. 6:4, NIV), but it is an effective way frequently used throughout history in God's Church. In this usage, "catechism" means more than simply "instruction": it means Christian instruction in a question-and-answer format designed to teach a summary of what the Bible teaches. An excellent book on this subject is Donald Van Dyken's Rediscovering Catechism (P & R, 2000). He challenges churches today to adopt the Biblical and Reformational practice of catechizing, presenting a solemn argument on behalf of catechisms and catechizing: "The biblical and Reformational model is catechizing, a method of teaching in which hearing and speaking are central. If the church needs men and women of faith for the days ahead, we must return to listening to the Word and from there to be asking questions and getting answers. 'Faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God' (Rom. 10:17)" (p. 13). That is not the approach taken by many churches today: "The method employed in many Sunday Schools emphasizes doing and seeing. Children color pictures, cut out characters, play games, and act out Bible stories; they are visually engaged by overhead projectors and videos. To the extent that such activities preempt teaching by word, we should seriously question whether they serve the biblical and Reformational model" (p. 13). Other techniques may be appropriate from time to time, but since God has given us verbal revelation in the Word of God, what we need to emphasize is verbal communication. Thus the primary mark of God's True Church is the preaching of the Word, and likewise the use of questions-and-answers appears to have good reasons for it. In his dedication to the Catechism of the Church of Geneva, Protestant Reformer John Calvin had this to say: "What we now bring forward ... is nothing else than the use of things which from ancient times were observed by Christians, and the true worshippers of God...." When we think of the Reformation era as a great time of God's Re-forming His Church through His Word, we often think of the mighty preaching of the Word. We may fail, however, to see to what extent people were being blessed through the Word as its fundamental teachings were summarized and taught by means of Christian catechisms: "Of this period we may say that all the Reformers (Luther, Melanchthon, Calvin, Zwingli, Beza, Knox, and Cranmer) and all the churches supported catechism teaching faithfully" (Van Dyken, p. 45). Many of these Reformers, in fact, wrote their own catechisms for use in the churches. Such Reformers included Martin Luther, John Calvin, and John Knox, for example. After the Reformation, the emphasis upon catechisms continued. One example is the Heidelberg Catechism throughout Europe, but catechetical instruction also flourished among the Puritans of Great Britain (the Westminster Shorter Catechism was a magnificent achievement of the Westminster Divines, i.e., ministers) as well as among the Plymouth Pilgrims and New England Puritans in what has now become the United States. In short, where catechizing and catechisms thrived, there also Christianity thrived. I could have supplied even more examples. For example, the great Baptist preacher Charles Spurgeon was responsible for "Spurgeon's Catechism," so catechisms are also part of Baptist tradition at its best and most Biblical. We would do well to rediscover their value today, and many people today, in fact, have come to a new appreciation for the continued relevance of the Heidelberg Catechism (1563) and the Westminster Shorter Catechism (1647). The Heidelberg Catechism is part of the heritage of Reformed churches, and the Westminster Shorter Catechism (and Larger Catechism) part of the heritage of Presbyterian churches, although these catechisms (or an adaptation) are often used by other Christians today. I hope to have a larger list of links in a future issue, but for now here are some helpful Web sites related to catechizing and catechisms (with the emphasis upon the Westminster Shorter Catechism): Westminster Shorter Catechism with Proof Texts Along with the Questions and Answers you'll find the actual text of the proof texts (and not merely the references). http://www.reformed.org/documents/WSC_frames.html Westminster Shorter Catechism Project (Bible Presbyterian Church) This is an amazing resource! Here you'll find not only the questions and answers plus Scripture references (all fully quoted), but links throughout to the following works about the Westminster Shorter Catechism: James Fisher's Catechism on the Catechism, John Flavel's Exposition of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism, Matthew Henry's A Scripture Catechism in the Method of the Assembly's, Thomas Vincent's The Shorter Catechism Explained from Scripture, Thomas Watson's Body of Divinity, John Whitecross' The Shorter Catechism Illustrated, and Alexander Whyte's A Commentary on the Shorter Catechism. http://www.shortercatechism.com/ That site contains some other useful resources, including some harmonies of the Westminster Standards (Westminster Confession of Faith plus Larger and Shorter Catechisms): Harmonies of the Westminster Standards (Bible Presbyterian Church) http://www.shortercatechism.com/resources/harmonies/wsc_scripture_index.html That site has special praise for one resource in particular: "Stephen Pribble's Scripture Index to the Westminster Standards is an extremely valuable contribution to the study of the confession and catechisms. This is a rather large file (130K), with links directly from the Scripture references to the relevant sections in the Shorter Catechism Project." http://www.shortercatechism.com/harmonies.html Here's where you can download that file: Stephen Pribble's Scripture Index to the Westminster Standards http://www.shortercatechism.com/resources/harmonies/wsc_scripture_index.html Here's where you can purchase some good books related to the Heidelberg Catechism and Westminster Shorter Catechism: The Discerning Reader: Catechisms and Confessions http://www.discerningreader.com/catechism.html And here is information on some available software related to the (first 38 questions of the) Westminster Shorter Catechism: Built on the Rock http://www.shepherdent.com/RockBuilt.htm Finally, here are some helpful articles on catechizing and catechisms: Kelly, Douglas. The Westminster Shorter Catechism. (Premise, June 6, 1996) http://capo.org/premise/96/mj/p960511.html La May, Bob and Kay. Catechizing God's Children. http://www.kinder-kreations.com/Catechizing.htm Murray, John. The Catechisms of the Westminster Assembly. http://www.rtrc.net/documents/wcf/catechisms.htm Riddlebarger, Kim. Fathers, Instruct Your Children: The Need To Recover the Practice of Catechism http://www.reformedreader.org/rpc.htm Warfield, B.B. Is the Shorter Catechism Worthwhile? http://www.bpc.org/resources/articles/warfield/warfield_shorter_catechism.html Enjoy! _______________________________________________________________ 3. ADD STREAMING AUDIO TO YOUR PERSONAL OR CHURCH WEB SITE It's not difficult for you to add "streaming audio" to your personal or church Web site and I'll show you how to do that in a moment, but first let's define what "streaming audio" is and why you might want to add it to a Web site. "'Streaming' audio files are those which play without having to download them first. These include Internet radio broadcasts, and are usually in RealAudio or streaming MP3 formats." http://mp3.about.com/library/weekly/aa010603fileconversions.htm But "streaming audio" is useful not just for Internet radio broadcasts, but has other applications as well. For example, why not (with his permission, of course) put your pastor's messages on your personal or church Web site? True, you could simply put up the text of the message so that site visitors can read the sermon, but there are advantages to allowing them actually to hear the preaching of the Word. And streaming audio makes this not only possible, but also is a lot easier to do than you might think. Of the two main choices (RealAudio and streaming MP3), I think there are some reasons to prefer MP3 over RealAudio: (1) MP3 files are generally smaller than ReadAudio files for the same sound quality and take less time to travel over the Internet. (2) Some people have had trouble installing RealPlayer or in getting it to work properly, but computers running Windows ordinarily have Windows Media Player or its equivalent already installed, a program that does not ordinarily cause such problems. (3) It's not difficult at all (if needed) to do file type conversions involving MP3 files, but the same is not true of RealAudio files. Let's go through the process, taking sermons as an example. Here's what you need to do: (1) Record the sermon, say, on cassette. (That's called "analog" format.) (2) Using that recording, create a computer file. (That's called "digital" format.) (3) Convert the file (which may be in WAV or some other format) into an MP3 file. (4) Add the necessary HTML code to the Web page. (See the Web pages listed at the end of this article for details on the first three steps.) Of course, you can choose to have someone else take care of the entire process (for an appropriate fee, of course). Here is one place where that can be done: Sermons Online http://www.netmedia.org/sermonsonline/index.htm An example of a congregation that uses this service is New Hope Presbyterian Church (PCA), Fairfax, Virginia: New Hope PCA: Sermons Available On-Line http://www.netmedia.org/nhpca/index.htm According to SermonsOnline, New Hope PCA has "more than two hundred hours of sermon audio online." SermonsOnline offers two different options: ______________________________________________________________ / "We offer two services: a Mail-In Service that creates an online tape ministry from the sermons you mail to us, and a Hosting-Only option for advanced users that just need media hosting. "Mail-In Service ... Just mail us a copy of your services each week, fill in a simple, online form, and you're done! We take care of converting everything into a dynamic multimedia web page, so your members, visitors, and shut-ins can access it right from your ministry's current web site.... "We start by converting your tape into a digital audio file, then processing it to create a full, pleasing sound. We create two web audio files for each sermon: a streaming Real Player file for immediate playback, and a higher quality MP3 file for download. Your sermons will sound great, even over slow modem connections!... "Hosting-Only Service In our Hosting-Only Service, you do all of the audio processing and web page maintenance.... You use the FTP client of your choice to upload your media to our servers. All streaming is done via HTTP (aka “progressive download”). Progressive download starts playback of the audio file immediately after an initial buffer has been received.... Most web audio players support progressive download, including WinAmp MP3, RealPlayer, Windows Media Player, and Quicktime." http://www.netmedia.org/sermonsonline/services.htm \______________________________________________________________ Note a couple of things: (1) The "Mail-In Service" plan does not apparently make use of "streaming" MP3, but seems only to make the MP3 file available as a traditional download (which may be a long process for people who do not have cable access or DSN access, but normal phone dial-up access). (2) What they call "progressive download" is presumably the same as the approach I'll describe in a moment, where the HTML code for the Web page is set up so that an MP3 file will be processed as "streaming audio" as defined at the beginning of this article. (Some call it "pseudo-streaming.") The key point is that you don't want your site visitor to have to download the entire file before he or she can start listening to it. "Streaming audio" or "progressive download" means that your visitors can start listening to the sermon almost immediately. Their "Hosting Only Service" does allow you to handle MP3 files in this way, but you can do this on your own Web site easily as well. There's a simple secret here: instead of linking directly to the MP3 file, you link instead to an intermediary file (which is sometimes called a "locator" file) that simply gives the address of the MP3 file. If you know HTML (the language used in creating Web pages), the process is simple. If you don't know HTML, a friend may be able to help or you may decide to learn for yourself the small amount of HTML needed to modify that portion of your Web page (and please bear with me for the next paragraph or so). Here's what a normal HTML link to an MP3 file looks like: <A HREF="http://somesite.org/somefile.mp3">Some Sermon</A> You replace it with a link that looks like this: <A HREF="http://somesite.org/somefile.m3u"Some Sermon</A> The "somefile.m3u" file is a simple text file (which you can create, for example, with Windows Notepad) which contains a single line like this: http://somesite.org/somefile.mp3 And that's all there is to it! You can find more details (and perhaps a clearer explanation) at the following sites: DeliverYourMedia: Streaming Audio Primer (a five-part article) http://www.deliveryourmedia.com/article-audio-primer.html DeliverYourMedia: Streaming Audio Primer: Updating Your Web Page (part five) http://www.deliveryourmedia.com/article-audio-primer-5.html How to Convert Anything: A Primer on Music File Conversions (by "music file" any sound file is meant) http://mp3.about.com/library/weekly/aa010603fileconversions.htm How to Effortlessly Use Streaming Audio to Add Impact to Your Online Business http://www.davidbartosik.com/arc/straudio.htm How to Put Audio Files on the Internet http://www.auburn.edu/truthseekers/audio/audiomake/audio.html W3U.net: Using audio files in your web pages (ignore the comments about cost: they will vary depending on your Web host) http://www.w3u.com/w3u/faqs/media/audio/ _______________________________________________________________ 4. GENEVA & KING JAMES: WHICH BIBLE(S) CAN YOU TRUST? Earlier issues of "CATI" told the fascinating but little-known story of the Geneva Bible: Better Than the King James Bible: You Bet Your Breeches! http://traver.org/cati/archives/cati73.htm#1 Follow-up: The (Old) Geneva Bible and the New Geneva Bible http://traver.org/cati/archives/cati74.htm#3 The Geneva Bible (not the King James Bible) was the Bible used by John Bunyan, John Milton, and John Donne. It was the main translation found in the homes of the British Puritans and the American Puritans and Pilgrims. One reason it was popular was that in addition to being a good translation it contained very helpful study notes, which were written from the perspective of John Calvin and the Protestant Reformation. Some of those notes, however, were not appreciated by King James, who especially did not like anything that suggested that in certain circumstances it may be permissible for a Christian to disobey someone in authority. To counteract the (Calvinistic) notes of the Geneva Bible, King James authorized a Bible of his own, the translation we know as the King James Version or Authorized Version. The ironic situation today is that some strongly Calvinistic Christians oppose the use of any translation other than the King James Version, not aware that the very reason that that version came to exist is that King James was opposed to the Calvinism of the Geneva Bible! That is why I decided to argue the case that the Geneva Bible is (even) better than the King James Version (although I appreciate some modern translations equally well, such as the NASB, NIV, NKJV, and ESV). In response to my articles, I got some interesting responses from subscribers, including a very interesting reply from Stephen Pribble, minister in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and webmaster/webservant of the OPC Web site. He has given me permission to mention him by name and to quote his letter, so here is the letter I sent him in response to a good issue that he raised: ______________________________________________________________ / Hello Stephen, SP> Enjoyed your article on the Geneva Bible. I, too, own the SP> Univ. of Wisc. ed. and love to read it. I had my daily SP> Bible reading out of it for several years, thereby reading SP> it through completely a number of times. I'm impressed (again!). If you have read the Geneva Bible through completely a number of times, your direct experience with the text is far more extensive than my own. I have merely read selected portions, so your accomplishments here put me to shame. SP> Though I [[am] fairly familiar with both the Geneva Bible SP> and KJV, I can't think of any place offhand where the KJV SP> text toned down the doctrines of grace (except for [its] SP> eliminating the G.B. notes). Do you have any particular SP> texts in mind? Very good question. Here's what I had said in my article: "Incidentally, many of the phrasings that people love in the King James Bible were not original to the King James Bible, but originally appeared in the Geneva Bible. (And still others go back to Tyndale's Bible.) So the King James Bible cannot rightfully claim credit for such renderings. (What it can claim credit for is its support of the removal of the Calvinistic notes of the Geneva Bible and perhaps some toning down of the Reformed/Puritan emphases.)" Can I think of any place offhand where the KJV text toned downthe Reformed/Puritan emphases (except for eliminating the Geneva Bible notes)? Very good question! The answer is "No," if we're talking specifically about the KJV text (about 40% of which was based on Wycliffe, Tyndale, Coverdale, and the Geneva Bible; about 5% of which was based on the Bishops Bible; and about 40% of which was new). This situation is perhaps surprising or even amazing, since (1) all of the KJV translators were Anglicans (none were Presbyterians or Independents), (2) King James directed that in the revision "... the Bishops' Bible [was] to be followed, and as little altered as the original [would] permit" and that "The old ecclesiastical words [were] to be kept, as the word church, not to be translated congregation," and (3) King James considered the Geneva Bible to be "seditious" and made its ownership a felony. As I just said, in actuality, however, the KJV text is based much more on the Geneva Bible and the earlier work of William Tyndale than on the Bishops' Bible. Those who today hold to a Reformed or "Calvinistic" understanding of the Christian faith may be grateful to God that -- contrary to the intent of King James -- the "King James Version" owes much more to its Reformed predecessors than to its Anglican predecessors. Without doing some sort of extensive comparison of the text between the Geneva Bible and the King James Version, I cannot say that there is absolutely no toning down of Calvinistic emphases anywhere, but if pressed to take a position, I would lean toward your own position on the matter concerning the fidelity of the KJV text. The King James Version does accurately set forth the doctrines of grace. In addition to not having the Calvinistic Biblical notes of the Geneva Bible, the King James Version does, however, tone down the Reformed/Puritan emphases in another important aspect. The Geneva Bible came out in 1560 and had its distinctive notes at that time. That's the edition that you and I own. Having the "first edition" of a book (or even, as in our case, a facsimile of the "first edition") is nice, but it means that missing is some important material appearing in editions that came out after 1560. A mere eight years later, i.e., in 1568, the Geneva Bible included "Calvin's Catechism." In 1579 a second catechism was included in the Geneva Bible: "Certain Questions and Answers Concerning the Doctrine of Predestination, the Use of God's Word and Sacraments." (As the titles indicate, there's no doubt that they were "Calvinistic" in perspective.) When the King James Version was published, what took place was not only the removal of the Calvinistic notes of the Geneva Bible, but also additional toning down of the Reformed/Puritan emphases in the removal of the Calvinistic Catechisms. By God's grace, in spite of such things, the text of the King James Version continued to be a faithful rendering of the Biblical text, for which we may be grateful. Best regards, Barry P.S. Would you object to my quoting you in a future issue of CATI? If not, is it all right for me to mention you by name, or would you prefer that I not do so? (I'm not twisting your arm one way or the other here: it's your choice.) P.P.S. An interesting historical sidelight is that "it is reliably reported that the three basic books to be found in the majority of [colonial] New England homes were the catechism, the Psalter, and the Bible" (Donald Van Dyken, Rediscovering Catechism, p. 46). The Geneva Bible (at least in later editions) included all three, since it also contained the metrical Psalms of Sternhold and Hopkins. Today most Christian homes contain Bibles, but the Psalter and the Catechism (whether Calvin's, Children's, Heidelberg, Westminster Shorter, or Westminster Larger) are too frequently absent. \______________________________________________________________ Bottom line: Stephen in a courteous way called my attention to the fact that my earlier articles could be taken as raising doubt on the integrity of the King James Version itself as a translation. Such was not my intention. The KJV is a good translation (perhaps better than King James intended), partly because it makes so much use of the Tyndale, Coverdale, and the Geneva Bible. (Often in what we regard as the specific beauty of the King James Version some comparison will show that the wording is the same as -- and possibly taken from -- the Geneva Bible.) In short, the KJV as a translation shows no signs of being "anti-Calvinistic," but rather clearly sets forth, as Stephen said, "the doctrines of grace." _______________________________________________________________ 5. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS: INFORMATION ON CATI NEWSLETTER Like to know what this is? This is the seventy-eighth issue of a free newsletter devoted to "Christians And The Internet" ("CATI," pronounced "Katy," but spelled with a "C" and an "I" for "Christians" and the "Internet"). Like to subscribe to this free email newsletter? Just send an email to email@example.com (but be sure to include your name in the note). Like to read past CATI issues and articles (or even search CATI for a particular subject)? Go to http://cati.org and you'll find an archive of past issues (arranged in reverse chronological order), a partial index of articles (arranged alphabetically by topic), and a search engine specifically for use with CATI. Like to pass along this issue to others? You may. Permission is hereby granted to pass along any issue of CATI to someone else, provided that it is passed along in its entirety with no changes made. (For now, I prefer that you send the complete issue, although I may in the near future provide guidelines for passing along individual articles.) Like to use material from this newsletter (say, on a Web page or in a publication)? For permission to do that, send a note to firstname.lastname@example.org (explaining what you'd like to use and for what purpose). Reasonable requests are usually granted. Like to unsubscribe? That's also easy. Just send an email to email@example.com (but if you decide to unsubscribe, you'll be missed, so any thoughts about the newsletter that you would be willing to share at that time would be much appreciated). Like to tell your friends about CATI? That is not only much encouraged, but also an encouragement to the editor! CATI is a lot of work (albeit a labor of love) and (since it is a free newsletter and I intend it to stay such) provides no financial income, so what keeps me going with this personal endeavor is knowing that people are finding it to be helpful, instructive, and enjoyable. (Comments from readers are always welcome, so let me hear from you!) Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this newsletter is Copyright (C) 2003 by Barry Traver, All Rights Reserved.